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Chapter 6

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Michael Inzlicht

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Chapter 6 PSYC12 11042011 Experiencing Prejudice - Researchers have taken the view that prejudice originated and was maintained within the majority perceiver of the minority target - People try to fit in with the majority so they will not be singled out for ridicule or treated negatively by others o Overt in children who have not learned socially sophisticated methods of disapproval o Adults negative evaluations take the form of subtle negative comments, rude behaviour etc. - Stigma o Unusual characteristics that engender negative evaluations - Group identification o Research indicates that individual that face external threats show stronger ingroup identification o Doosje and Ellemers (1997) Found that people differ in the degree to which they identify with their stigmatized group High identifiers are more likely to associate themselves with their group even when it has a negative image High identifiers derive much of their self esteem from their identification as a group member Low identifiers are much more likely to dissociate themselves from the group especially when it has a negative image o More individualistic and opportunistic, they will only identify with the group when it has a positive image - Stereotype threat o Individuals in stereotyped groups often find themselves vigilant about not behaving in way that confirm stereotypes about ones group Engage in performance limiting behaviour in order to provide them with a ready excuse for their expected poor performance on the stereotype relevant dimension o Research indicates that for many stereotypes the negative implications of confirming the stereotype are important enough that they can impair ones ability to behave in counter stereotypic way Anxiety one feels in thinking about possibly confirming the stereotype can be impair ones performance on the stereotype relevant dimension Recent research suggests that stereotype threat has its effects through the mediating influence of a drop in working memory capacity (Schmader and Johns, 2003) o Effects of stereotype threat are especially likely to occur in people who strongly identify with the group about which the stereotype exists Recent research shows that people under stereotype threat actually fare worse physiologically than their non threatened counterparts (Blasovich, Spencer, Quinn, and Steele, 2001) Black participants in threatened condition showed higher blood pressure than non threatened counterparts o Stereotype life (Walton and Cohen, 2003) Nonstigmatized persons seem to experience a performance enhancement when they engage in a downward comparison between themselves and a member of a stereotyped outgroup o Evidence accumulated to date indicates support for the notion that stereotypes about ones group can impair ones performance on salient ego and identity relevant tasks - Disidentification
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