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PSYC14 Lec 10 - near verbatim

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PSYC14 Lecture 10: Culture and Gender PY Date: Nov 22, 2012 Slide 1: Outline  Key definitions – Sex vs. Gender  Cross-cultural examination of gender  Backlash effect  Theoretical models for gender development and empirical support – how we learn about gender Slide 3: Sex is not gender  Gender is an important factor in our social development b/c it is a staple to ppl’s social identities; something that remains stable in general  2 terms used interchangeably but actually different but related ideas = SEX & GENDER  Sex – biological and physiological differences between men and women o One instance of it is brain lateralization  Right hemi is more involved in the processing of spatial info whereas left hemi = involved in processing of verbal info  However, found there might be differences between men and women in brain lateralization  Men’s brains tend to be more lateralized/specialized than women’s brains  Some evidence = work on patients with brain damage = found that compared to women, men who have damage to left hemisphere have shown greater deficits in verbal skills  Damage to right hemi = greater deficit to spatial skills = more pronounced in men  Therefore the corresponding hemispheres are more specialized in men = greater problems if damage in those areas o Another piece of evidence comes from studies using brain activity by detecting associated changes in brain blood flor  Participants asked to perform diff cognitive task while brain activity measured  Blood changes that occur noted; more activity in area = more blood flow in that area  Sheawitz et al. study:  When men & women asked to perform verbal task – deciding if nonsense words rhymed  Women = both hemi = activated; men = only left hemi for men = more lateralized  More hemi specialization occurs in men compared to women Slide 5: Brain lateralization  Greater lateralization in men’s brains than women’s brains  Evidence? o 1) more pronounced deficits among brain-damaged male patients o 2) greater brain activity in corresponding cognitive task among men Slide 6: Differences in Reproduction 1 PSYC14 Lecture 10: Culture and Gender PY Date: Nov 22, 2012 o Most obvious sex differences = anatomical differences in the reproductive system = basically the differences in sex organs Slide 7: Sex Roles  Behaviors and activities that men and women engage in that are directly related to sex differences o Ex) men have been found to be physically stronger, bigger, superior in visualspatial skills - men responsible for hunting, setting shelter, gathering, protection from harm o Women = biological capacity for caring for young – can carry their child, provide direct nourishment by breast-feeding Slide 8: Gender is not sex  Gender – behaviors and activities that culture deem appropriate for men and women  Gender stereotypes - beliefs that entire culture holds about attitudes and behaviors that are acceptable and appropriate for males and females o Stereotypes = prescribe the way that males and females should BE and should ACT  Stereotypes can be in line with sex and sex-role differences (most of the time in-line with the sex differences and sexual differences) o Ex) because women have biological capacities for child care – there’s traditional view for females to be nurturing, caring, stay at home – take care of kids/house o Males = superior visuospatial skills = encouraged to undertake math/scientific endeavours to enhance these skills Slide 9: Gender Roles  Degree to which a person adopts socially-defined behaviors and activities o Refers to what ppl actually exhibit  Reflections of gender stereotypes o Some ppl have high tendencies to adopt these patterns, some ppl have lower tendencies  Variability among men and women to how much they adopt gender prescriptions (socially defined activities)  Culture influences our perception of gender differences Slide 10: Gender is bounded by culture  Gender of concept may be universal, but content of gender may be diverse  How has gender been examined cross-culturally? – allow us to examine both universality and diversity of gender concepts as well as the different contextual factors that may impact these observed differences o A) Hofstede’s masculinity dimension on global platform o Factor analysis where diff dimensions of patterns, beliefs and behaviors across cultures – one dimension identified = Masculinity o According to hofstede: slide below Slide 11: Masculine Cultures 2 PSYC14 Lecture 10: Culture and Gender PY Date: Nov 22, 2012  Stresses material success  Stresses assertiveness  Different roles for males and females: o Males have more dominant role over females  Assertive, competitive, ambitious – males  Females = weak – non-material aspects of society roles = care for children  Female = non-dominant role Slide 12: Feminine Cultures (cultures low in masculinity)  Stresses interpersonal relationships  Stresses concern for others  Overlapping roles for males and females o Both males and females can take on dominant role o Both aspire for material success as well as maintaining interpersonal relations o Males in dominant roles and females in non-dominant roles is as acceptable as females in dominant roles and males in non-dominant roles  Some cultures can be more masculine and some cultures can be more feminine however, the masculinity dimension reflects key gender stereotypes  Gender stereotypes have also been examined on individual level (below) Slide 13: Williams and Best  Examined generality of gender stereotypes across cultures o Cross-cultural generality of traits associated with men and women  Asked college students to categorize 300 adjective according to gender – adjectives checklist o Identify which adj best describe men and women o Asked diff cultures to do this – across 25 countries – there are gender stereotypes Slide 14: Williams and best  Men o Stronger/active o Dominant o Aggressive o Achieving  Women o Weak o Passive o Nurturing  These are the types of adjectives associated with both genders  Participants are college students = more industrialized society  When another study examined participants of less industrialized society -below 3 PSYC14 Lecture 10: Culture and Gender PY Date: Nov 22, 2012  Same gender stereotypes found among mothers from Belize, Kenya, Nepal and Samoa – also likely to describe men and women the same way as those college students  Traits appear to be universal Slide 15: Williams and Best (1990b)  Sex Role Ideology Scale to determine attitudes of how men and women should act in diff countries o A) measure of gender ideology = SRIS o B) 30 items that tap into opinions about various topics (ex: work roles, parental responsibility, social relationships) o C) Ratings summed to obtain single summary score – measure of gender ideology score Slide 16: Williams and Best (1990b)  Differences in views about gender equality  Egalitarian views – men and women treated equally (ex: Netherlands, Finland, Germany); equal rights and responsibilities; more modern view  Traditional views – men more rights and power (ex: India, Pakistan, Nigeria) Slide 17:  Both studies showed cultural differences in gender stereotypes reflected in ppl’s gender concepts (=in terms of their understanding of how men and women should be behaving)  Differences in gender stereotypes also in ppl’s behaviors in certain situations Slide 18:  Aggression and prosocial behaviors investigated extensively  Boys display higher levels of aggression compared to girls – across cultures  Girls are more nurturant in social interactions – offer more help/support in social interactions; caring for infants  Nature of peer play can be a factor Slide 19: Munroe et al. (2000) – looked at the dynamics of peer play  4 non-industrial cultures (Belize, Kenya, Nepal and American Samoa)  3-, 5-, 7-, 9-year old children  Observed social interaction within their community  Recorded and coded behaviors: o Aggression (ex: assaulting) o Prosocial (ex: offering help)  Categories by Whiting and Whiting (1975) Slide 20: Munroe et al. -Results  Boys generally exhibited more aggression than girls – a lot more boys than girls 4 PSYC14 Lecture 10: Culture and Gender PY Date: Nov 22, 2012  When they looked @ the peer that these aggressive acts directed to mostly same-sex peers – lot more so for boys  More evident when comparing non-aggressive directed towards same-sex peers – So, boys are less likely to direct non-aggressive behaviors to same-sex peers compared to girls Slide 21: Munroe et al. Results  When it comes to aggressive acts, bigger proportion of these acts are directed to boy by boys and girls in general direct non-aggressive acts to other girls Slide 22: Munroe et al. (2000)  Gender differences found in social behaviors  Nature of actual group may influence types of behaviors displayed  Gender stereotypes can also affect how we interact with others - below Slide 23: Jealousy  Emotional reaction to the loss of a valued relationship  Triggered by infidelity situations that can be sex specific  Women get jealous = loss of emotional involvement  Men get jealous= loss of sexual exclusivity  Rooted in evolutionary purpose of reproduction / mate selection Slide 24: Fernandez et al. (2006) – empirical study  Examined differences in jealousy responses among men and women (sexual asymmetries in response to diff jealousy scenarios) – 2 spanish-speaking samples  Chile (S. America) and Spain (Europe)  College students completed questionnaire  Asked to imagine being in a stable relationship and partner interested in someone else o Diff types of infidelity situations – given 2 scenarios for each situation – which is more distressing for them  Situations that involve infidelity and provide 2 scenarios (A & B) for situation  Select if A or B is most distressing Slide 25: Fernandez et al (2006)  A) Imagine your partner forming a deep emotional attachment to that person.  B) Imagine your partner enjoying a passionate sexual encounter with that person  Which of the 2 is more distressing?  Researchers found: o Both Chile and Spain:  Men – found sexual infidelity more distressing than women  Women – found emotional infidelity more distressing 5 PSYC14 Lecture 10: Culture and Gender PY Date: Nov 22, 2012 Slide 26: Fernandez et al. (2006) – Results  Replicated findings among European, American and Asian cultures  Differences in men and women regarding their root of jealousy seems 2 be universal Slide 27: Gender Stereotypes Useful  Gender stereotypes are useful to process info and situations within a short period of time o Shortcut to understand situations and ppl, esp if short period of time  Stereotypes are standardized images/generalization – when perceiver meets target, likely to categorize them and have category-based impressions of them – heavily relies on target’s characteristics, one of which is gender  Gender role stereotype help define what it means to be male or female – often cases, they are correct but if these stereotypes are based on these conceptions, they can be problematic Slide 28: What happens when someone goes against the stereotype?  Information that don’t fit the category expectations are handled in various ways: o A) Creation of a category subtype  Ex) Emotional male o B) Individuation – person or situation is seen as a particular instance (anomaly
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