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Lecture 6

PSYC14H3 Lecture 6: PSYC14 LECTURE 06
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC14H3
Professor
Nicholas Hobson
Semester
Fall

Description
LECTURE 06: EMOTIONS LECTURE OUTLINE: - Evolutionary vs cultural perspectives on emotion - Affective science: basic emotions theory vs appraisal emotions theory - How do cultures vary in these ways: o Expression of emotions o Perception of emotions o Conceptualization of emotion o what elicits emotions o experience emotions emotion is something we think we understand because we experience it on a daily basis. As humans we are emotional beings and we all experience it on different levels. Emotion is a complex idea that unfolds across time, occur subconsciously or unfold across different time periods whether it be seconds or days. Emotion can mean a number of things and since we are complex creatures, depending on our cultural nature, how we think about and perceive emotions will vary based on the culture we grew up in. RECALL: - natural selection happens when o within species compete o within species differences o phenotype tied to genotype **environment favors some heritable variations over others - emotional expressions are adaptations o they are actions that helped our ancestors survive o they coincided with emotions our ancestors felt ▪ example: intense fear when arachnophobias see spiders • this emotion of fear would be tied to our evolutionary past ▪ example: disgust, when we are disgusted with something we tend to close our eyes and wrinkle to close our nasal cavities to protect us from smells • the evolutionary past used this emotion to protect us from toxins **emotions are functional and needed for our existence, it prepares us for actions and without emotional experience there is no human life - evolution and culture o primitive urges shape culture ▪ example: language o culture controlled primitive urges o culture changes but sometimes our bodies and minds can’t keep up, there are limits to evolutionary adaptation **we are in the driver seat of our evolutionary change but our brains are still in the past. We have a very strong visceral reaction to junk food which is bad. BUT out brain says that this food is so rare and limited that it may never show up again so we need to ingest it otherwise we die, which make us eat it more, leading up to obesity EVOLUTIONARY VS CULTURAL APPROACHES We borrow concepts from both theories to create an understanding about emotion Question of Interest Evolutionary Approach Cultural Approach What is an emotion? Biological processes Interpretations, language, beliefs, roles Neural and bodily Are emotions universal? Yes Possibly not If a human is a human, we all There is more to consider evolved in the same way, so all humans have the same emotions What are the origins of Environment of evolutionary Practices, institutions, values emotions? adaptedness Example: emotion of digust Functions Individual: Action readiness Reify intentions and values You have an emotion that Reify roles, identities, and ideologies moves through your body and you can feel it and it prepares you for some action to be done Dyadic: Social coordination Social emotions like shame or guilt that prepares us to become social species BASIC EMOTIONS: EVOLUTIONARY SIGNIFICANCE Started with Darwin but was adopted by Paul Eckman. There are 6 basic emotions people will express. No matter what language or culture, all humans have these emotions so it’s thought to be universal - fear - disgust - sadness - happiness - surprise - anger Paul Eckman was also interested in human emotions drives. So he did a study with rats and found that along with the 6 basic emotions there were 7 emotions or drives that exist in all mammal species - seeking - rage - fear - lust - care - panic - play RAT VIDEO EXPERIMENT Rats play, when the researchers were tickling them apparently they were laughing. This means that if they have the basic necessities they will engage in superfluous behavior. Rats will engage in leisure behavior which look like play and resembles a young mammal socializations. Since humans are complex, we live more detailed emotional lives, so in comes the appraisal theory. APPRAISAL THEORY: It goes beyond the basic emotions we experience. For example, fear will cause you to run and attack something or run and flee. The underlying reaction of fear will ready you for any action, but because of how you grew up in a certain culture your reaction will ready your action specific to that culture. So everybody will differ in reaction but will still have the same label of the emotion “fear”. So it’s heavily dependent on language. PSYCHOLOGICAL THEMES THAT ELICIT UNIVERSAL EMOTIONS 1. accomplishing a goal 2. failing to accomplish a goal 3. being kept from something you desire or want 4. being sickened or repulsed by something: related to disgust, the oldest response seen across all cultures 5. sensing danger caused by the unexpected: related to fear or surprise 6. acknowledging something new or novel: related to the 7 motives or surprise **the emotions are the same but how we respond to emotions are greatly different and pertain to culture SECONDARY APPRAISALS AKA DIMENSIAL APPROACHES HOPE = - elevated attention, effort and agency - moderate pleasantness - little certainty HAPPINESS= - pleasant, low effort - high certainty - high attention **we have low medium and high levels that if combined together will create an emotional expression, but it all depends on culture EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE IMPLIES - emotions are the same across GENERATIONS - emotions are the same across CULTURES BUT a lot of evidence says that emotions, emotional expressions and emotional disorders differ by generation and by culture GUIDING QUESTIONS What cross cultural differences are observed when we - experience emotions - express emotions - conceptualize emotions - perceive emotions SIMPSON CLIP: lisa goes to Russian district Clip showed a huge cultural difference at how much emotion is expressed or experienced can be deemed appropriate. Because in the clip she was asking for directions but the Russian was yelling at her, but what he was saying was giving her the directions. She perceived it as them getting angry at her. They perceived it as normal emotional expression. 5 PRINCIPLES OF EAST ASIAN THOUGHT 1. CHANGE nothing is static 2. CONTRADICTION opposites are consistent and true 3. COVARIATION events are interrelated in complex field or systems 4. COMPROMISE so that the truth may lie in the synthesis of opposites 5. CONTEXT events occur not alone but in context INDIVIDUALISTIC VS COLLECTIVISTIC DIFFERENCES - People from interdependent cultures find greater happiness in fulfilling duties -
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