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Lecture 5

PSYC14H3 Lecture 5: PSYC14 LECTURE 05

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Nicholas Hobson

LECTURE 05: SELF AND MOTIVATION WHO AM I - What influences my decisions - The biggest questions that guide our daily behaviors and judgements and decisions on how we feel on a moment to moment basis - Humans have the ability to : o INTROSPECT: to look within ourselves o CONTEMPLATE FUTURE o PSYCHOLOGICAL TRAITS: physical, physiological, psychological - How we see the self and how we ask who we are and do the things that we do SELF DESCRIPTIONS One research study explored the 20 statements test among Kenyans and Americans Ma & Schoeneman (1997) - Introspective activity that allows you to look inwards at who you think you are - Drawing comparison between Kenyans and Americans - Notion that there is a wide variation in individualism and collectivism - Y AXIS: percentage of statement - Personal characteristic: “I am smart” - Role and membership: “I am a sister” role in society (social network) - Black bars mean it’s higher: o Especially in the case in the last two traditional indigenous living in the region less touched and affected by western culture - Masai & Samburu: they see themselves as belonging to a role or social membership o Workers in Nairobi see a higher bump in personal characteristics - American undergrads and Nairobi undergrads: the number of personal characteristics is higher o Individualistic society are more likely to see themselves o Undergrads in Africa are operating in a more Western/Individualistic culture There is emphasis on……. Personal Characteristic People who emphasize pride will come from individualist society: - Americans - high personal characteristics - Australians - Western/individualistic society - British - ego centric - Swedish - Canadians - separate - higher priority to personal goals Roles and Memberships - defined by experiences and accomplishments - pressing others and highlighting how each individual is different - Kenyans - parenting: raise their kids saying “you are special, unique…accomplish any dream” - Cook Islanders - main goal: related to realizing ones own potential and self uniqueness - Malaysians - Chinese People who endorse in roles of membership sense of self - Native - collectivistic/interdependence sense of self Americans - salient - Puerto Ricans - identity defined in terms of contracts and social connections - Indians - roles and status - Japanese - Koreans - group goals: goals in life overlap with self and others - act in accordance to community - increase in authority and senior members - group harmony (higher hierarchy) - control is secondary: to the entire population of society Construals: Independent vs interdependent Individualistic vs collectivistic INDEPENDENT: - Circle around the individual does not overlap with the border of the surrounding relationships - Close but don’t overlap - X;s inside the circles reflect aspect of identity: attitudes, traits of a person, preferences o Lie within the individual - No sharing of attitudes - Self is bounded, stable, and autonomous - An ingroup is fluid - The boundary for the independent view of self is between the individual and the non self - Penetrable INTERDEPENDENT - Overlapping with significant others who are close with the independent - See myself as a friend to a friends and a daughter to a mother - Larger X’s are shared with people who they are closer with because that is how they define themselves - There is fluid and change but it depends on how adaptive this person is - Consistency ranges from situation to situation - Border between ingroup and outgroup is solid because it’s more significant and stable/ it is a predictable distinction - COLLECTIVISTIC: in groups are very strong SELF AWARENESS Subjective vs. objective self awareness SELF AWARNESS - Different way to think of cultural differences - Paradigm of what it means to be human - Emphasized in Western traditions o Important to be aware of who we are o Most important human aspect - Huge emphasis on knowing one self and understanding one self SUBJECTIVE SELF AWARENESS - Idea that people consider themselves from the perspective of the subject (who they are) - Concern with the world is outside themselves - Largely unaware of themselves OBJECTIVE SELF AWARNESS - Appear to others as an object - Concern directed to themselves - Compare themselves to some standard (social standard) JAPANES VS AMERICAN STUDENTS - Each student was asked to evaluate how far they felt from their ideal self o Self discrepancy vs. Self-critical - Prescence or absence of a mirror o When you’re standing in front of a mirror and viewing yourself, you become more self- critical - Americans thought highly of themselves with few discrepancy when there was no mirror - Americans were more aware of themselves and were more self critical when there was a mirror - Japanesewerehighlycritical inbothconditions,themaineffect inculturewasthat theywerehighly self critical all the time - Japanese tend to have a sense of objective self-awareness o They consider themselves to belong to a larger social circle o They are always focusing on how they are viewed all the time to everyone SELF AWARNESS AND THE E TEST Quick way to determine how much self focus people have - Right panel: considering now his own point of view, but others as the E is correct to others who view him but not himself - Left panel: consider his own point of view and not others because the E is incorrect to others who view him but is correct to himself and how he writes and E Helps to distinguish between someone who is more or less self oriented MINI CASE STUDY - Executives draw the E that fits themselves - Lower level were a mix of self oriented and other oriented - Women were more likely to be “other” focus - SPECULATION: pattern might be the opposite in a more collectivistic society SELF AWARNESS AND MINDFUL MEDITATION CENTRAL FEATURE OF MINDFULNESS - Hot and fashionable research topic for the past 5 to 10 years - Eastern tradition of meditation - More recently western society jumped on the bandwagon - Yoga, mindfulness are trendy and sold by lululemon for a lot of money - Capitalism and consumerism - Fad and trend for people of all ages - Lululemons is a 27 billion dollar industry - Consumer movement coincided with recent growth in research of mindfull ness - Is traditional Eastern similar to Western conceptualization of mindfulness - How research topic in science can really hinge on the interest of the public - 1980s-2000 o Few publications - 2005-2006 had a huge exponential increase in research on mindfulness meditation MINDFUL WAY THROUGH DEPRESSION (THE BOOK) - Attending to internal or external stimuli - Describing phenomena without judgment - Acting with awareness through undivided attention - Allowing present moments or events to occur without judging them Clinical prospective - Traditions are referred to MBSR (Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction) or MBCT (Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy) - Tied into traditions and principles of cognitive therapy and add in mindfulness meditation Western conceptualization of mindfulness self-awareness - Acceptance and awareness 4 NOBLE TRUTHS: mindfulness is important element that is included in the buddhist philosophy and teaching - All life is suffering - Suffering comes from desires - The cure of suffering is the extinction of desire - The extinction of desire is obtained through the eightfold path (part of which is mindfulness) Traditional aspect of meditation - Buddhism in Thailand - Associated with practices of mindfulness and has a huge impact on cognitive and behavioral aspect of a human CHRISTOPHER ET AL 2009 - Common western measures how mindful we are o Common to thai and western participants - Failed to find common validity between the 2 groups due to the vast difference in mindfulness THEORY OF SELF - IMPLICIT THEORY OF SELF o Performance and performance based context - ENTITY THEORIST/INDEPENDENT AND WESTERN CULTURES o Believe that any kind of talent or ability (physical or mental) is stable and unchangeable - INCREMENTAL THEORIST/ INTERDEPENDENT AND COLLECTIVISTIC o You can prove and work through different stages (develop mentally and physically) - Reflected in student performance o When students perform in school in western society it is stable and unchanged (entity) o Can’t vary much from where they sit (standardized
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