• A multicultural environment indicates that there are a more diverse experiences had by
people in the group
• Globalization: we communicate with people around the world from different cultures via
technology and international business
o Global civilization: societal boundaries are not described spatially- but rather exist in
terms of the connectedness of people. 2 societies do not necessarily have to be
separated in space to be independent, or vice versa
• Children from cross-cultural marriages are exposed to more different cultural elements. They
develop multicultural identities, etc.
o People who have immigrated also maintain this cultural duality. The heritage culture
is maintained within the household sometimes; the education system is different
(children talk more and “discuss”); the migrant parents have a role reversal when kids
begin to teach the parents
• The psychological adjustment:
o Acquiring a new language
o Learning interpersonal and social behaviours (sometimes a person might not even
know they are doing something wrong the whole time)
o Becoming accustomed to new values (when children talk back more to their parents).
So much new cultural info can result in culture shock
o Might become a member of a minority group, and possible face prejudice
o Having to adjust one’s self concept
• People who are acculturating have varying experiences (because they move for different
o Moving to be closer to family, leaving as a refugee, etc.
• The experiences are different for everyone also because people can migrate to a Psefuo-
cultural haven (ex: Chinese people moving to Toronto china-town)
o There can be homogeneous, heterogeneous (maybe discriminating), or expatriating
environments (where everybody is different but they share in a common and
• People also move to places with varying Cultural Distance. Ex: moving from USA to Canada
is a lot different than moving from USA to Japan.
• Multi-cultural fusion: to combination of multiple elements from 2 different cultures
• Acculturation vs Enculturation
• Learning a new culture vs maintain the original/heritage culture
• Berry et al. described 4 different strategies to of integrating a multicultural identity (slide 12)
• There are other ways to consider how people form a multicultural identity. Considering the
work by LaFramboise et al.: o Integration: identity becomes blended into 1 coherent identity. Multicultural identities
becomes added together, and you only ever have 1 cultural identity
o Alternation: switching back and forth among the cultural identities depending on the
context. Ex: I go to china town and I feel asian; I go to dundas square and i feel
o Synergy: new identities are created out of contact with different cultural models.
Creating a new creole culture that creates new words from the Chinese and English
• Benet-Martinez et al. Bicultural Identity Integration. A person’s subjective perception of how
their dual cultural identities interest.
o There can be low BII (little cultural identity switchi