Cross Cultural Social Psychology
10 October, 2013
- study done across many different places,
- In Kenya, in the more rural areas they focus more on role and memberships,
but it becomes considerably less when we approach the urban areas
- Why is this? Why does urban equal individualism, there is more people and
they are all doing their own stuff, and they aren’t interacting that much, and
because there is so much people there is more exposure to different ideas,
and you are constrained to what the social norms are.
- However you have the undergrads who are focusing more about their
individualistic characteristics, why are they so different from the working
- Because they are exposed to the education system, it is the british education
system, and if they are exposed to these ideologies they are more likely to
adopt them. Nirobi undergrads are more similar to American undergrads.
- One other thing is that as we are developing individualistic across the globe
we are developing more personal characteristics across the board
- Not only Americans has individualistic characteristics, but Australian, British,
Swedish, Canadian. These individuals try to identify themselves as unique.
- In contrast, Kenya, India, Japan etc, they tend to involve themselves with
group harmony and group membership. They don’t exist as a separate entity.
- The chart shows: it is general framework, of how we view ourselves with the
way we interact with other people. It shows individual and everyone else,
there is a solid circle around the individual, it is separate from everyone else,
I am an individual, and there is no overlap with friends, or family. There is
also an ingroup, but it is a dotted line, why is this, because people can
transition from one group to another, your bff today can not be your bff
tomorrow, your ingroup is fluid, sometimes you like a person and sometimes
you don’t, so they can move in and out of the group. What about the x’s you
have big x;s and small ones, the big ones stand for you because they are
essential and they are the most important, but how your mom describes her
self isn’t important.
- In contrast with an interdependent group, the line is solid around the
ingroup, so you cannot get out of that ingroup, it is a tightly bound network.
There is a lot of overlap with the individual, and the family and friends. The
biggest x is where the overlap is, how you describe yourself is based on the
overlap with the other individuals in the group. In addition the line around
the individual is dotted, you are not an entity, how you define yourself is not
concrete, your definition of yourself depends on who you are interacting with
at that moment. Your identity is very fluid and depends on interactions.
- this is subjective versus objective awareness - subjective awareness, you are the subject and it is through your eyes that you
are looking on to the world. You are not aware of yourself, because you are
looking at others and you forget that you are even there.
- Objective awareness is the inverse, you are trying to see what people see
when they look at you. You are directing your attention to yourself, you are
more critical because you are worried about other peoples standards and
how they think of you.
- In a study, Japanese and American Students
- They evaluated the actual self ideal self discrepancies, how you view yourself
- They found that Americans are pretty confident and they feel that they are
close to their ideal self.
- In the mirror condition when they were looking at themselves as an object,
they were more critical.
- With the Japanese, they are critical of themselves without the mirror.
- They are always thinking of how they will be evaluated.
- Cognitive Dissonance Theory- when your ideas or attitudes don’t match
with your behaviour, you feel tension and you have to do something to fix it.
You have this attitude and you are a strict vegetarian, but then your
behaviour you see this leather jacket and you want to buy it. So what do you
do? You can change your attitude to be consistent with your behaviour. You
can also make an exception and justifying it. You can not buy the jacket, and
say that it isn’t so stylish, so your behaviour can be consistent with your
- So you are trying to minimize this tension, and justifying it
- In one study, Japanese and Canadians
- They were instructed to evaluate each menu items, then give a choice
between two items, then chose one menu item
- European Canadians, shows that their attitude was consistent with their
- Interestingly, Japanese did not show any difference in their evaluation, no
dissonance. They rank them both the same, but they just happened to select
one so what.
- When they had to select one for a friend, it is so much more important to
them and they experience dissonance. So they are more concerned with their
Kitayama and Markus
- Model of Cultural Modes
- Social relations are governed by instrumental goals of separated selves
- We have a goal, and everything in the path is the means to the end