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Lecture 5

Lecture 5- 10th October, 2013.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Sisi Tran

PSYC14 Cross Cultural Social Psychology Lecture 5 10 October, 2013 Self Descriptions - study done across many different places, - In Kenya, in the more rural areas they focus more on role and memberships, but it becomes considerably less when we approach the urban areas - Why is this? Why does urban equal individualism, there is more people and they are all doing their own stuff, and they aren’t interacting that much, and because there is so much people there is more exposure to different ideas, and you are constrained to what the social norms are. - However you have the undergrads who are focusing more about their individualistic characteristics, why are they so different from the working world? - Because they are exposed to the education system, it is the british education system, and if they are exposed to these ideologies they are more likely to adopt them. Nirobi undergrads are more similar to American undergrads. - One other thing is that as we are developing individualistic across the globe we are developing more personal characteristics across the board - Not only Americans has individualistic characteristics, but Australian, British, Swedish, Canadian. These individuals try to identify themselves as unique. - In contrast, Kenya, India, Japan etc, they tend to involve themselves with group harmony and group membership. They don’t exist as a separate entity. - The chart shows: it is general framework, of how we view ourselves with the way we interact with other people. It shows individual and everyone else, there is a solid circle around the individual, it is separate from everyone else, I am an individual, and there is no overlap with friends, or family. There is also an ingroup, but it is a dotted line, why is this, because people can transition from one group to another, your bff today can not be your bff tomorrow, your ingroup is fluid, sometimes you like a person and sometimes you don’t, so they can move in and out of the group. What about the x’s you have big x;s and small ones, the big ones stand for you because they are essential and they are the most important, but how your mom describes her self isn’t important. - In contrast with an interdependent group, the line is solid around the ingroup, so you cannot get out of that ingroup, it is a tightly bound network. There is a lot of overlap with the individual, and the family and friends. The biggest x is where the overlap is, how you describe yourself is based on the overlap with the other individuals in the group. In addition the line around the individual is dotted, you are not an entity, how you define yourself is not concrete, your definition of yourself depends on who you are interacting with at that moment. Your identity is very fluid and depends on interactions. Self-Awareness - this is subjective versus objective awareness - subjective awareness, you are the subject and it is through your eyes that you are looking on to the world. You are not aware of yourself, because you are looking at others and you forget that you are even there. - Objective awareness is the inverse, you are trying to see what people see when they look at you. You are directing your attention to yourself, you are more critical because you are worried about other peoples standards and how they think of you. - In a study, Japanese and American Students - They evaluated the actual self ideal self discrepancies, how you view yourself - They found that Americans are pretty confident and they feel that they are close to their ideal self. - In the mirror condition when they were looking at themselves as an object, they were more critical. - With the Japanese, they are critical of themselves without the mirror. - They are always thinking of how they will be evaluated. Self-Consistency - Cognitive Dissonance Theory- when your ideas or attitudes don’t match with your behaviour, you feel tension and you have to do something to fix it. You have this attitude and you are a strict vegetarian, but then your behaviour you see this leather jacket and you want to buy it. So what do you do? You can change your attitude to be consistent with your behaviour. You can also make an exception and justifying it. You can not buy the jacket, and say that it isn’t so stylish, so your behaviour can be consistent with your attitude. - So you are trying to minimize this tension, and justifying it - In one study, Japanese and Canadians - They were instructed to evaluate each menu items, then give a choice between two items, then chose one menu item - European Canadians, shows that their attitude was consistent with their behaviour - Interestingly, Japanese did not show any difference in their evaluation, no dissonance. They rank them both the same, but they just happened to select one so what. - When they had to select one for a friend, it is so much more important to them and they experience dissonance. So they are more concerned with their friends. Kitayama and Markus - Model of Cultural Modes - Social relations are governed by instrumental goals of separated selves - We have a goal, and everything in the path is the means to the end -
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