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Lecture 04 notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Sisi Tran

Cross-cultural Lecture 04 Before Beginning Research - develop knowledge about the cultures of interest (you have to have some reason for looking at these cultures, in this hypothetical study) - read ethnographies, texts, qualitative reports - Collaborate with others from different cultures (people who could possibly give you insight into what you are trying to look for) - Talk with people - Ask questions - Learn Firsthand Insiders vs. Outsiders - Psychologists pride themselves on objectivity - approach based on concerns about bias from being too close to the groups of interest - psychologists like to have more concrete data to stand on (empirical data) - In contrast, anthropologists pride themselves on getting highly invested and involved - Approach based on truly experiencing culture COSI: Four Questions - why is cultural psychology different from other disciplines in.... - Causation - Operationalization - Sampling - Interpretation Causation - What is the cultural dimension that is driving my differences? - individualism vs. collectivism (this is typical a west east comparison, what about north south? It would be a very different group of results) - Approach vs avoidance motivations - tightness vs looseness - Monochronic vs polychronic time (monochronic time: if a interview is at 2 you are there early, its a set/exact time. polychronic: “elastic band time” very loose) - Linear vs contextual thinking - Fatalism (some culture believe in fate others do not) - Egalitarianism (hierarchically oriented) - Religiosity - Ethnic homogeneity (what is the difference? we have to look at the multi- dimensionality of it, basically the things above) - “Are my cultural effects driven more by things that are “in the head” or “out in the world”? - out in the world = out in society, in the head = you internalizing your culture - Individual Differences: People see things differently, one person may see something one way and another person will see it a completely different way - Social-Cognitive approach: working with priming and behavior that comes from that. If we prime individualism in your head then you will act more individualistic - Situation-structure approach (or situation sampling): Prototypical situations given, reactions from the participants to these prototypical situations. Studying a specific situation and the reactions from them. (ex. american success stories vs. japanese failure stories: everyone felt uplifted by the success stories and pulled down by the failure stories, no matter where they were from) - Behavioral signatures: - Cultural Level Analyses (so far has been individual level analyses): things like advertising, children shows, news coverage, etc. something on a bigger scale Operationalization - “Am I translating my variable correctly from one culture to another?” - Linguistic Translation: there may not be a similar word in one culture to another culture that mean the same thing (ex. self-esteem might not have a similar word or consequently construct in Japanese culture) - Back-Translation: English to Other language you want to study, back to english translation - Response Biases: Some people are more likely to agree with questions (almost like being too polite), there are people that are more extreme on their survey choices, where as other people are more modest - Reference Group Effects: The problem comes with what reference they are comparing themselves too (their own culture, the whole world? etc) - Quantifiers: Rather than “how much do you agree with this statement” something more like “In the last week how many times did you do this” this is something more
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