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Lecture 05 notes

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Sisi Tran

Cross-cultural Psychology Lecture 05 monday 9-1030 (viewing session) - Frequency distribution: number of participants who receive each possible score (graph of frequency: histogram) - Central tendency: mean (average score), median (score that divides group in half), mode (most frequent score) - T test = difference between two groups / variability within two groups Self and Motivation - we are more focused on our traits (rather than our roles) - we are more likely to write positive traits than negative traits Self-Descriptions - one research study explored the 20 statements test among kenyans and Americans (Ma and schoeneman 1997) - workers in Nairobi have about 10% personal characteristics and 35% roles and membership, Masai and Samburu have hardly any personal characteristics and about 60 to 70% roles and memberships (respectively) - Nairobi undergrads are basically the reverse of workers in Nairobi, having a larger amount of personal characteristics and few roles and memberships. The American undergrads are strikingly similar to Nairobi undergrads - What is interesting is the polar opposites of Nairobi undergrads (more focused on self, and larger personal characteristics) and Nairobi students (more focus on role and relationships) Emphasis on Personal Characteristics: Americans, australians, British, Swedish, Canadians Emphasis on Roles and Memberships: kenyans, cook islanders, malaysians, chinese, native americans, puerto ricans, indians, japanese Markus and Kitayama (1991) Independent vs Interdependent view of self (two figures on lecture slides) the “x” shows traits of people (or descriptors) - interdependent view: the big X’s are overlapped in friends and self or family and self, them and you having descriptors that are for both of you (you are closer), the smaller x’s (thus less important) are only found in the individual, suggesting that the individual defines self with traits with friends/family which are seen as more important. - (look at this lecture slide) Subjective Vs. Objective Self-awareness - subjective: looking out into the world - objective: i am the object of this awareness, you are focused on yourself and hoping that you are living up to a standard, your thoughts about how others view you - Japanese and American students (Heine, Takemoto, Moskalenko and Lasaleta (2007)) - Evaluated actual-ideal self discrepancies - either in front of mirror or not - Americans generally thought highly of themselves, perceiving few discrepancies between their ideal self and actual self (no mirror) - In the mirror condition, when they were more of aware of themselves (as an object) they became much more critical - In contrast, Japanese participants were highly critical of themselves, regardless of the mirror condition Self Consistency - Cognitive dissonance theory: state of tension occurs when an individual observes himself or herself behaving inconsistently with his/her attitudes - Attitude: Im a strict vegetarian who believes in animals’ rights - Behavior: I see a stylish leather jacket and I just have to buy it - When dissonance is experienced, I can relieve that tension by: - Changing my behavior - Changing my attitude - Rationalizing the inconsistency or minimizing its importance Self-Consistency - a research study (Hoshino-Browne, Zanna et al. (2005)): Japanese and European Canadians, Instructed to rank order menu items, given a choice between two items, selected one of the two items, subsequently re-evaluated all menu items - Post Decisional Dissonance - European Canadians: showed much more favorable evaluations of their chosen item, compared to other items - Japanese: Whereas, Japanese participants did not show any difference in their evaluations, even after selecting the menu item.... No dissonance - they also did this when in a condition where they would want order for a friend - Japanese: they showed more dissonance when selecting for a friend... rating the item much higher than before - Europ
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