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PSYC14 Lecture 3: Culture and Development PY Date: Sept 28, 2012 Lecture: o Socialization and enculturations o Models that have been proposed to explain these o Culture and learned skill o Sensitive periods in culture acquisition o Different agents of socialization (focus: parents) o How culture can be seen in diff developmental areas Development of personal space Slide 1: o Culture and Development: Growing up you learn diff rules for behaving and interpreting behaviors of others These rules basically form the basis of culture Sets the standards for what proper behaviors are What happens when these rules arent followed Ex) children learn not to take others possession get in trouble Ex) young boys = probably not good to be caught playing w/ barbies ridiculed by peers As we get older, we being to question the rules and standards; test boundaries; sometimes we seek out and adopt new behaviors for ourselves Ex) ok to take someone elses stuff sometimes not necessarily get in trouble taking friends car keys if drunk Ex) our toy preferences doesnt necessarily define our sex As adults we evaluate, use these standards w/out even thinking too much about them; we test them out w/out other ppl constantly reminding us what they are Can say, as adults, we are cultural beings o How do we come to develop culture in the first place Cross-cultural psychologists have argued that one key adaptation which enable humans to distinguish themselves from monkeys is the ability to learn and accumulate culture very well Ability to acquire cultural knowledge which basically allows us to survive o How do we come to develop these diff types of skills? Argument: humans are born without culture = culture-free Were not born w/ knowledge of hunting or closing a 7-digit bsn deal We learn these skills But, were born w/ the ability/mechanism to be able to learn culture; flexible so we can learn all kinds of skills/abilities Prepares us to adjust and allows us to make sense of the enviro which we are born into o How do we make sense of our enviro? 1 PSYC14 Lecture 3: Culture and Development PY Date: Sept 28, 2012 As children, these rules are constantly reinforced to us by our parents, teachers, peers, institutiions (school, church, workplace) agents of socialization We learn the diff standards thru process called socialization Socialization = learning and internalizing standards of beh, attitudes and values that ensure us to becomes fxning members of society Involves # of methods, ppl, years (takes long time); with the sole purpose of preparing us to become competent, productive members of society We become enculturated to the society that we live in Enculturation refers to the standards, the rules of appropriate beh/attitudes/values that become internalized Socialization and enculturation complement each other very well b/c socialization refers to the process and enculturation refers to the outcome of the process o socialization is a process thats long been examined and evaluated by researchers diff models trying to make sense of this process 1) Developmental Niche Framework o According to this model, socialization and enculturation develops w/in this niche = specific area/place for the child to develop o This niche can be divided into 3 operational subsystems: 1) Actual physical and social settings (ex: home enviro and family members, teachers, school, peers) this refers to the who, where and how of day-to-day life 2) Customs and practices the caregivers adopt (ex: refers to the behavioural aspect of things for ex: types of disciplinary methods that parents adopt time- outs, praises/hugs etc;) 3) Psychology of caregivers this refers to the cognitive aspect the goals and beliefs of the underlying caregivers have adopted (ex: their belief that good parenting should result in academically successful kids; or belief that they need to promote their kids self-esteem) those types of beliefs underlie the methods that are adopted by the parents as well as the expectations that the parents have for adopting those methods o According to Super and Harnes??, all of these play a role in childs development Creating a niche a place for the child to grow and develop as an individual o Also recognize that the child isnt a passive individual among these components, so the child brings their own innate disposition, their temperament, potential, talents Development is unique for each child b/c it involves mutual adaptation of the individual to the enviro and the enviro to the individual o Focus of this model = family so a bit smaller in scope 2) Ecological system: o Broader model, well-known model 2PSYC14 Lecture 3: Culture and Development PY Date: Sept 28, 2012 o Shows visually how all the diff systems surround the child and also shows magnitude of the effect o There are diff systems surrounding the child but each of these interact with each other o So, the whole system is dynamic and it continuously changes o Baby in the middle: 1) Micro-system: these are the settings that the child lives in and the individuals that they directly interact with (family, parents, teachers, peers, daycare) 2) Meso-system: relationship btn these principle settings; what happens in one setting is not independent from what happens in the other setting (what happens @ home will impact progress at school etc;) 3) Exo-system: Child isnt only affected by what happens in the environment around the child but also in the settings in which the individuals surrounding the child lives their lives (ex: Parents work, their social network); these environments are deemed external to the child but changes in them still impact the child, albeit indirectly 4) all of these systems are surrounded by the macro-system which are the institutions, the ideologies, the communities, beliefs which essentially refer to a culture in which all these systems exist 5) Chrono-system (???) which interacts all these systems; refers to the time
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