Here are some notes from one of our students in PSYC18. They have kindly donated
their notes so feel free to take a look!
• For behaviourists emotions = cognition + arousal (which gives energy to focus).
• “Undifferentiated arousal” not looking inside to see sadness or anger. It is just
a general arousal with no known cause.
• You are moving along with some action plans and something stops it
environment is giving information about situation.
• How well do we read our body?
o Arousal becomes a cue that wakes you up and tells you to analyse cues
around you. Cues orient you to trouble shooting, action plans, etc.
• Magda Arnold
o Perception (noticing stimulus) appraisal (assessing event) emotion
(ready for action). This sequence occurs very quickly because emotions
are about survival.
• Drive Reduction Model: you feel tension in uncertain situations after you get
over it (action), tension is reduced.
• Nico Frijda
o Sets the stage for emotional theories in Europe.
o Event coding what is going on?
o Feeling of action tendency is emotions just like what behaviourists
• Richard Lazarus
o In his experiment “intellectualization” means provide distance from film
and think logically.
o Hypothesis: Appraisal (how you see or approach film will determine your
o Primary appraisal situational cues, good for me or bad for me?
o Secondary appraisal deal with and evaluate coping response
If intellectualization or denial is given, you wont be affected as
much by the film found film less stressful.
If they focused on trauma, then negative emotional reactions
The way we look at situation determines our emotional reaction.
www.notesolution.com • Eponymy a phenomenon is associated with a person. That is, something is
named after you.
• Emotions prepare us; tune us to our world evolution oriented analysis.
• Oatley and Johnson-Laird
o Brain has organizing modules that communicates and is responsible for
o Intrasystemic communication communication in my brain about action
and between two of us about action.
o If you are a super planner or super coping person we have to be action
oriented and strategic. You think about arousal but not our happiness or
sadness. We bury our emotions.
• Extroverts respond to rewards, they burn out quickly.
• Introverts respond to fear of punishment. Slow and steady brain. Move at even
• Social constructionist perspective:
o We help to create situations around us.
o We can be selfish and not think about being selfish.
o We create meanings in our world and this meaning serves as a kind of
o Passion its happening to you and the world did it to you (more
o Cultures have meanings and meanings shape our emotions.
o Some cultures emphasize some emotions and others don’t. The entire
culture can also have an emotion (social emotions). Emotions also play a
vital role in sustaining a culture.
o We remember the passions (what YOU did to me) but not what we did to
set up the situation.
o Active vs. passive we actively create situation but we don’t realise it.
Passively, we know we are recipients of other person’s emotions.
o Maturation accepting responsibility.
o This view focuses on social goals rather than personal goals.
• Intentional emotions are planned but spontaneous emotions are immediate,
• Social aspect to the emotion of fear/guilt depends on religion. For e.g. one
thing in one religion produces guilt but not in others.
• Action guys are very Darwinian (more biologically determined) whereas
experience guys are about meaning of emotional experience.
• Emotions are multilayered and they exist in time and have structure. Emotions
start early on in childhood.
• The aesthetics of action theory:
www.notesolution.com o If you’re bored then you want to watch an action movie, if you need
warmth you’ll watch a sentimental movie. Our needs and goals become
attached to particular stimuli that direct our behaviour.
o Talks about affective co variation between stimulus and response. Also
closely related to action theory. I’m picking a goal to change in mood state
manipulate my reaction.
• Early in life, we have experiences that act as paradigms so later on in life the dim
memories get activated and you have an emotional episode.
• Body has visceral system (heart rate, breathing, etc.) and expression system
(muscular reactions to emotions).
• Feelings of body states are incorporated into the emotion.
• For action guys: stimulus appraisal coping action.
• James: event a lot of bodily changes emotions. Feedback from bodily
changes (propioceptive feedback) changes our emotional reaction.
• Happiness and sadness are muscular reactions. E.g. a hug is comforting because
your body state is comforting.
• Fear and anger are emotions of the gut.
• Interest is engagement with world and disgust is rejection of world.
• You be to read your visceral and sensitive to satiety cues when you are dieting.
Sometimes we are over come by external stimulus. (e.g. when you see a chocolate
• Centralist approach:
o At all levels of biology, there are two models: facilitation (experience
model) and inhibition (action model don’t overreact, it’ll get in your
way of coping).
o Mind does the planning and body provides energy.
o Centralist approach in brain.
o Peripheral approach (James) visceral activity shapes emotions.
• Some people are very expressive while others don’t show it. Facial feedback
hypothesis feedback from facial expressions shape our emotional experiences.
• People who are hard to read, its confusing to understand what they are feeling.
We can try to control facial expressions but the spontaneous expressions cant be
• Non-verbal leakage you think your emotional state is in control, but its not.
Your speech may be under control but you nervous leg jiggles aren’t.
• In real life, no pure expressions exist, the affect blends depending on the situation.
Facial expressions alone (without information situation) are enough to judge the
• Emotions like contempt; shame and guilt reflect social pressures and are very
situational based. To what extent are these emotions wired in and to what extent
do situations add a nuance to