Class Notes (808,761)
Canada (493,382)
Psychology (7,620)
PSYC18H3 (334)

Lec 7-11 Notes

7 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Gerald Cupchik

Hi all, Here are some notes from one of our students in PSYC18. They have kindly donated their notes so feel free to take a look! Michelle LECTURE 07 • For behaviourists emotions = cognition + arousal (which gives energy to focus). • “Undifferentiated arousal” not looking inside to see sadness or anger. It is just a general arousal with no known cause. • You are moving along with some action plans and something stops it environment is giving information about situation. • How well do we read our body? o Arousal becomes a cue that wakes you up and tells you to analyse cues around you. Cues orient you to trouble shooting, action plans, etc. • Magda Arnold o Perception (noticing stimulus) appraisal (assessing event) emotion (ready for action). This sequence occurs very quickly because emotions are about survival. • Drive Reduction Model: you feel tension in uncertain situations after you get over it (action), tension is reduced. • Nico Frijda o Sets the stage for emotional theories in Europe. o Event coding what is going on? o Feeling of action tendency is emotions just like what behaviourists said. • Richard Lazarus o In his experiment “intellectualization” means provide distance from film and think logically. o Hypothesis: Appraisal (how you see or approach film will determine your emotional reactions). o Primary appraisal situational cues, good for me or bad for me? o Secondary appraisal deal with and evaluate coping response personal. o Results: If intellectualization or denial is given, you wont be affected as much by the film found film less stressful. If they focused on trauma, then negative emotional reactions increase. The way we look at situation determines our emotional reaction. • Eponymy a phenomenon is associated with a person. That is, something is named after you. • Emotions prepare us; tune us to our world evolution oriented analysis. • Oatley and Johnson-Laird o Brain has organizing modules that communicates and is responsible for our behaviour. o Intrasystemic communication communication in my brain about action and between two of us about action. o If you are a super planner or super coping person we have to be action oriented and strategic. You think about arousal but not our happiness or sadness. We bury our emotions. • Extroverts respond to rewards, they burn out quickly. • Introverts respond to fear of punishment. Slow and steady brain. Move at even pace. • Social constructionist perspective: o We help to create situations around us. o We can be selfish and not think about being selfish. o We create meanings in our world and this meaning serves as a kind of social regulation. o Passion its happening to you and the world did it to you (more religious). o Cultures have meanings and meanings shape our emotions. o Some cultures emphasize some emotions and others don’t. The entire culture can also have an emotion (social emotions). Emotions also play a vital role in sustaining a culture. o We remember the passions (what YOU did to me) but not what we did to set up the situation. o Active vs. passive we actively create situation but we don’t realise it. Passively, we know we are recipients of other person’s emotions. o Maturation accepting responsibility. o This view focuses on social goals rather than personal goals. LECTURE 08 • Intentional emotions are planned but spontaneous emotions are immediate, unplanned. • Social aspect to the emotion of fear/guilt depends on religion. For e.g. one thing in one religion produces guilt but not in others. • Action guys are very Darwinian (more biologically determined) whereas experience guys are about meaning of emotional experience. • Emotions are multilayered and they exist in time and have structure. Emotions start early on in childhood. • The aesthetics of action theory: o If you’re bored then you want to watch an action movie, if you need warmth you’ll watch a sentimental movie. Our needs and goals become attached to particular stimuli that direct our behaviour. o Talks about affective co variation between stimulus and response. Also closely related to action theory. I’m picking a goal to change in mood state manipulate my reaction. • Early in life, we have experiences that act as paradigms so later on in life the dim memories get activated and you have an emotional episode. • Body has visceral system (heart rate, breathing, etc.) and expression system (muscular reactions to emotions). • Feelings of body states are incorporated into the emotion. • For action guys: stimulus appraisal coping action. • James: event a lot of bodily changes emotions. Feedback from bodily changes (propioceptive feedback) changes our emotional reaction. • Happiness and sadness are muscular reactions. E.g. a hug is comforting because your body state is comforting. • Fear and anger are emotions of the gut. • Interest is engagement with world and disgust is rejection of world. • You be to read your visceral and sensitive to satiety cues when you are dieting. Sometimes we are over come by external stimulus. (e.g. when you see a chocolate cake). • Centralist approach: o At all levels of biology, there are two models: facilitation (experience model) and inhibition (action model don’t overreact, it’ll get in your way of coping). o Mind does the planning and body provides energy. o Centralist approach in brain. o Peripheral approach (James) visceral activity shapes emotions. • Some people are very expressive while others don’t show it. Facial feedback hypothesis feedback from facial expressions shape our emotional experiences. • People who are hard to read, its confusing to understand what they are feeling. We can try to control facial expressions but the spontaneous expressions cant be controlled. • Non-verbal leakage you think your emotional state is in control, but its not. Your speech may be under control but you nervous leg jiggles aren’t. • In real life, no pure expressions exist, the affect blends depending on the situation. Facial expressions alone (without information situation) are enough to judge the emotions. • Emotions like contempt; shame and guilt reflect social pressures and are very situational based. To what extent are these emotions wired in and to what extent do situations add a nuance to
More Less

Related notes for PSYC18H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.