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Lecture 9

Lecture 9: Chapter 8

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michelle Hilscher

PSYC18 Psychology of Emotion Lecture 9: Outline: 1. The Parent-Child Relationship o origin of meta-cognitive skills and EI 2. The Wider Social World o šZš]L2}µšÁZš[ZLoŒLšZ}K]LLÁ }LšÆšZ 3. /oo}ZJoo;K}š]}Lo}K‰šL Parent-Child Relationships are the Foundation for: - Meta-cognitive skills - Thinking about thinking, question your own psychology - Theory-of-mind - Ability to attribute mental states to others, others may not value what you value - Emotional Intelligence - lL}Á]L2Z}Áš}ŒZ‰}L]L2š}}šZŒ[ZK}š]}LZ7K}š]}LoZo- efficacy (they are an emotional being) This Skill Set Starts Being Built in Childhood - Emotion is the key to skill acquisition!!! Why? - Emotional expressions are the first language between parents and children. - Emotions allow parents and children to bond. - Emotions are motivating }L}šZZ]Z;L }µŒ2]L2‰ŒLšZš}š ZL hildren to learn. Emotion is the First Language - Emotional expression key for communication between parents and children of all ages. /LLÁ}ŒLZ; - pre-linguistic - allows simple messages about basic needs. needs (hunger, pain, poop etc) - no further differentiation required. (general crying will do the job - parents just need to know that there is a basic physical problem) When do babies start exhibiting distinct negative emotions? (difference in anger vs. pain vs. fear) - Your answer depends on the criteria you use. 1) Face Focus J the furrowed brow, mouth is downturned etc. o muscle movements may not be emotional, if you do not know the situation you cannot jump to conclusions o But: the best criterion? 2) Face + Situation Focus o labeling of expression depends what elicitor it was partnered with. (diff facial muscle movements go with diff situations) o Ex: favorite blanket/toy J scrunched up face if out of batteries o if different baby J loud noise from same toy makes a fear response (ex: widen eyes) o Therfore: babies do have discrete facial expressions - According to Oatley et al. (2006): o Face only focus J not strict = 3 months o Face + situation focus J stricter = more than 1 year of age ƒ 11 months = happiness and anger J seems to be distinctly expressed Do Infants Show Distinct Negative Facial Expressions for Fear and Anger? Camras et al. (2007). In Infancy. - looked at facial expressions + body movements Method - Seventy-two 11-month-old infants - Cross-cultural sample: US, Japan, China - Within-subjects design with two conditions. o Arm restraint to elicit anger - holds down the arms, baby gets frustrated, holding up to 3 mins, crying for more than 7 seconds, take a break o Growling gorilla to elicit fear - move the chair closer and closer to gorilla o Ethics: 7 second rule J take a break o Play session - Captured video footage in two ways. - Camera on Face & Body movements - Found a universal behavior, no culture specific behaviors Facial Expression Coding KZšŒ[Z~îììò ]o š]}L}]L2^ÇZšK~^}Œ]Z - Identifies combination/degree of activity of muscles that underlie particular facial expression. - What facial muscles are active and to what degree Results - Difference in facial expression by condition? - Z ooZlj}šZZ]Z;]ÁƉ šŒoÇ]ŒLš]š]}L; Finding: combinations of muscle activity strongly correlated across the two conditions. - Most common combination in both conditions was: o Common condition = nose wrinkle and cry mouth o Face = shows that there is no difference in anger + fear - Was there a difference in facial expression? Yes? - Should find the 11 month old will make a diff face for anger + fear, find little correlation between two conditions for muscle activity - But what is found is that they are strongly correlated = babies are making the same face for both condition These Results Lead Researchers to Conclude that Fear and Anger are not Differentially Expressed by 11 Month Olds. - š>Zš-}š]LšZ ; What about non-facial behaviors? What is the body doing? Body Behavior Coding - Non-facial behavior at baseline - Non-facial behavior in response to elicitor - e.g., withdrawal, stilling, struggling, hiding face, squirming, etc. - Present or absent? Results - Difference in body language by condition? By culture? - Any similarities between the two conditions? - Is there a difference by condition? Yes there is. o Arm restraint J struggling (but not in gorilla), moderate withdrawal o Gorilla restraint J stilling (but not with arm restraint), breathe more rapidly, not moving (frozen in fear) o Common between two J turning towards mom - No difference in culture, fear and anger being basic emotions µšZ}ŒZ[/LšŒ‰Œšš]}LZ - Differences in body language suggest underlying differences in emotional experience. - Anger and Fear are distinctly expressed by 11 month-olds, but only in terms of body language. o Fear = stilling (frozen in fear), breathing more rapidly o Anger = struggling JZÇ}ZL[š}ÇoL2µ2]ŒL translate to the face? - Authors suggest: - Facial movements are the result of non-emotional and emotional factors. - Face is orienting and expressing. - Emotional muscle activity diluted by exaggerated non-emotional muscle activity. - Babies have not develop an unexaggerated face yet Recap: Expressing Displeasure to Your Parents - General negative expression in newborns. - As baby matures, emotional expressions must become differentiated. o e.g., food preferences emerge - DLŒoÇ]L2šZ]Z ZL27ZZ]š]LšZLšµŒ} }KKµL] š]}L} µŒZ; - Emotional communication becomes more balanced! - Babies develops desires J food preference emerge o Can no longer be a general distress face o Need to have separate facial expression J disgust, happiness, anger, etc. - New expressions to accommodate new desires J as child become more sophisticated o Baby is able to give more clues to parents as to what they want Attachment in the Parent-Child Relationship - So, emotions underlie communication. - Emotions also the foundation of attachment; - Important to note the difference: - Attachment + protection - Affiliation + affection o Attachment J the bond that is established between a child and a caregiver, where the primary goal is protection (keep the baby alive) ƒ Caregiver and child need to work together to accomplish this o Attachment J to protect individual vs. affiliation bond J love and affection ƒ }L[šL}šZš}accomplish goal J ex: protect without love - Attachment J social motivation #1 o anxiety (low attachment) - trust (high attachment) - Affiliation - social motivation #2 o sadness (absent of person) J affection/love (present) - Assertion J social motivation #3 J kicks in later on in life (independence/autonomy), power over others o shame (submissive, lose their social power) J anger (dominant, social power is threatened) Attachment Allows Growth of Autonomy 1. Encourages curiosity. o Security allows luxury of exploration. o J]šZ}µšZZZ[ Z]oÁ]ooZÀš} be more cautious. 2. Allows construction of internal model about social interactions. o Model of cooperation. - thru interaction with parents sometimes you need to compromise o Theory-of-mind, me and you. J oš}ZÇ}µŒZoZZ‰ŒšŒ}K}šZŒZ[K]LZ (Key for autonomy) What About Fathers? - Oatley mostly reports on research with mothers. Fathers in attachment theory & research: A review Bretherton (2010). In Early Child Development & Care - Early developmental research: very little focus on dads - :2:7}ÁoÇ~íõñô9^K}L}šŒ}‰Ç_]ZK}K-oriented. - tendency to attach to one specific person more than anyone else - Makes sense given society in 1950s and 1960s. - K}K[ZŒZ}K-makers, dads have less role in child rearing - Mass media =, mrs.doubtfire Four Phases in Research About Dads 1. Can fathers serve as attachment figures? - do dads have the instinct to protect children? - Sample Study: Schaffer and Emerson (1964) o Scottish mothers, fathers, and children. o KE š}Z‰Œ
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