PSYC18 Psychology of Emotion Lecture 9:
1. The Parent-Child Relationship
o origin of meta-cognitive skills and EI
2. The Wider Social World
Parent-Child Relationships are the Foundation for:
- Meta-cognitive skills - Thinking about thinking, question your own psychology
- Theory-of-mind - Ability to attribute mental states to others, others may not value what you
- Emotional Intelligence - lL}Á]L2Z}Áš}ŒZ‰}L]L2š}}šZŒ[ZK}š]}LZ7K}š]}LoZo-
efficacy (they are an emotional being)
This Skill Set Starts Being Built in Childhood
- Emotion is the key to skill acquisition!!!
- Emotional expressions are the first language between parents and children.
- Emotions allow parents and children to bond.
- Emotions are motivating }L}šZZ]Z;L
hildren to learn.
Emotion is the First Language
- Emotional expression key for communication between parents and children of all ages.
- allows simple messages about basic needs. needs (hunger, pain, poop etc)
- no further differentiation required. (general crying will do the job - parents just need to know
that there is a basic physical problem)
When do babies start exhibiting distinct negative emotions? (difference in anger vs. pain vs. fear)
- Your answer depends on the criteria you use.
1) Face Focus J the furrowed brow, mouth is downturned etc.
o muscle movements may not be emotional, if you do not know the situation you cannot
jump to conclusions
o But: the best criterion?
2) Face + Situation Focus
o labeling of expression depends what elicitor it was partnered with. (diff facial muscle
movements go with diff situations)
o Ex: favorite blanket/toy J scrunched up face if out of batteries
o if different baby J loud noise from same toy makes a fear response (ex: widen eyes)
o Therfore: babies do have discrete facial expressions
- According to Oatley et al. (2006):
o Face only focus J not strict = 3 months
o Face + situation focus J stricter = more than 1 year of age
ƒ 11 months = happiness and anger J seems to be distinctly expressed
Do Infants Show Distinct Negative Facial Expressions for Fear and Anger?
Camras et al. (2007). In Infancy.
www.notesolution.com - looked at facial expressions + body movements
- Seventy-two 11-month-old infants
- Cross-cultural sample: US, Japan, China
- Within-subjects design with two conditions.
o Arm restraint to elicit anger - holds down the arms, baby gets frustrated, holding up to 3
mins, crying for more than 7 seconds, take a break
o Growling gorilla to elicit fear - move the chair closer and closer to gorilla
o Ethics: 7 second rule J take a break
o Play session
- Captured video footage in two ways. - Camera on Face & Body movements
- Found a universal behavior, no culture specific behaviors
Facial Expression Coding
- Identifies combination/degree of activity of muscles that underlie
particular facial expression. - What facial muscles are active and to
- Difference in facial expression by condition?
Finding: combinations of muscle activity strongly correlated across the two
- Most common combination in both conditions was:
o Common condition = nose wrinkle and cry mouth
o Face = shows that there is no difference in anger + fear
- Was there a difference in facial expression? Yes?
- Should find the 11 month old will make a diff face for anger + fear, find little correlation
between two conditions for muscle activity
- But what is found is that they are strongly correlated = babies are making the same face for both
These Results Lead Researchers to Conclude that Fear and Anger are not Differentially
Expressed by 11 Month Olds.
; What about non-facial behaviors? What is the body doing?
Body Behavior Coding
- Non-facial behavior at baseline
- Non-facial behavior in response to elicitor
- e.g., withdrawal, stilling, struggling, hiding face, squirming, etc.
- Present or absent?
- Difference in body language by condition? By culture?
- Any similarities between the two conditions?
- Is there a difference by condition? Yes there is.
o Arm restraint J struggling (but not in gorilla), moderate
o Gorilla restraint J stilling (but not with arm restraint),
breathe more rapidly, not moving (frozen in fear)
o Common between two J turning towards mom
www.notesolution.com - No difference in culture, fear and anger being basic emotions
- Differences in body language suggest underlying differences in emotional experience.
- Anger and Fear are distinctly expressed by 11 month-olds, but only in terms of body language.
o Fear = stilling (frozen in fear), breathing more rapidly
o Anger = struggling
translate to the face?
- Authors suggest:
- Facial movements are the result of non-emotional and emotional factors.
- Face is orienting and expressing.
- Emotional muscle activity diluted by exaggerated non-emotional muscle activity.
- Babies have not develop an unexaggerated face yet
Recap: Expressing Displeasure to Your Parents
- General negative expression in newborns.
- As baby matures, emotional expressions must become differentiated.
o e.g., food preferences emerge
- Emotional communication becomes more balanced!
- Babies develops desires J food preference emerge
o Can no longer be a general distress face
o Need to have separate facial expression J disgust, happiness, anger, etc.
- New expressions to accommodate new desires J as child become more sophisticated
o Baby is able to give more clues to parents as to what they want
Attachment in the Parent-Child Relationship
- So, emotions underlie communication.
- Emotions also the foundation of attachment;
- Important to note the difference:
- Attachment + protection
- Affiliation + affection
o Attachment J the bond that is established between a child and a caregiver, where the
primary goal is protection (keep the baby alive)
ƒ Caregiver and child need to work together to accomplish this
o Attachment J to protect individual vs. affiliation bond J love and affection
ƒ }L[šL}šZš}accomplish goal J ex: protect without love
- Attachment J social motivation #1
o anxiety (low attachment) - trust (high attachment)
- Affiliation - social motivation #2
o sadness (absent of person) J affection/love (present)
- Assertion J social motivation #3 J kicks in later on in life
(independence/autonomy), power over others
o shame (submissive, lose their social power) J anger
(dominant, social power is threatened)
www.notesolution.com Attachment Allows Growth of Autonomy
1. Encourages curiosity.
o Security allows luxury of exploration.
Z]oÁ]ooZÀš} be more cautious.
2. Allows construction of internal model about social interactions.
o Model of cooperation. - thru interaction with parents sometimes you need to
o Theory-of-mind, me and you. J oš}ZÇ}µŒZoZZ‰ŒšŒ}K}šZŒZ[K]LZ
(Key for autonomy)
What About Fathers?
- Oatley mostly reports on research with mothers.
Fathers in attachment theory & research: A review
Bretherton (2010). In Early Child Development & Care
- Early developmental research: very little focus on dads
- :2:7}ÁoÇ~íõñô9^K}L}šŒ}‰Ç_]ZK}K-oriented. - tendency to attach to one specific person
more than anyone else
- Makes sense given society in 1950s and 1960s. - K}K[ZŒZ}K-makers, dads have less role in
- Mass media = mr.mom, mrs.doubtfire
Four Phases in Research About Dads
1. Can fathers serve as attachment figures? - do dads have the instinct to protect children?
- Sample Study: Schaffer and Emerson (1964)
o Scottish mothers, fathers, and children.