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Gerald Cupchik

Lecture 6 Cognitive behaviorism Elizabeth Duffy (1941) - Mental state is purely cognitive; emotions are accompanied by affective reactions - Four qualities attributed to emotion that are not unique to emotional states: 1. Physiological mechanisms (e.g. activity of thalamus as opposed to cerebral cortex) 2. Degree of arousal or intensity of reaction 3. Disorganization that interferes with effective behavior 4. Interpretative data (e.g. description of contents of consciousness) - Duffy contrasted excitation, activation, or arousal measured by overt behaviour with inhibition - Increases in the degree of excitation tend to produce increases in the speed and force (or intensity) of the activity in progress - Very high levels of arousal lead to uncoordinated reactions, and make the person more sensitive to stimulation (physical, mental, or emotional). Changes in the novelty or intensity of the stimulus situation will lead to changes in excitation. - Again, optimal levels of arousal is needed to focus; we need to inhibit out of control motion - Duffy’s goal was to urge us to study the variation in certain fundamental aspects or dimensions of behavior in general as these occur under varying stimulation - Emotion is individual’s response to situations which promise well or ill for the attainment of his goals. The intensity of emotion = degree of importance the goal is o Drive – what do you need; e.g. rat starving for longer have more drive o Habit – do you have ability to get what you need o Value – how important is goal for you o Expectancy – do you think you will achieve your goal - Emotion = energy + direction - 2 sources for subjective qualities of emotion 1. Awareness of bodily changes which occur in process of adjusting energy level 2. Awareness of stimulus situation and of the set for response to that situation - Emotion = discrimination + energy + direction; discrimination = interpretation, direction = coping strategies Papez Psychoneural theory - Complex neural structure mediates emotional behaviour and experience - Role of amygdale influencing cerebral cortex and adding emotional color to conscious exp - Brain for locus of response as opposed to gut Lindsley Activation theory of emotion and motivation - Incorporate excited emotions such as rage, fear, and terror as well as sleep, coma and drowsiness. Cortex analysing whether situation is good or bad and is giving responses for coping behaviour but it needs energy to do it. Optimization - Continuum from: - Deep sleep, coma, death -> Light sleep -> Drowsiness -> Relaxed wakefulness -> Alert attentiveness - Lindsley emphasizes motivational aspect: 1. General alerting – arousal (energy) process which is dynamic and energizing 2. Sharpening of focus on stimulus cues which are associated with goal or with satisfaction of a need (relates to attention) - Attention: selective awareness of certain sensory messages with simultaneous suppression of others (activation and inhibition model) Schachter – IMPORTANT TO CUPCHIK - Cognitive behavior person. He is about emotional labeling - Festinger’s “evaluative needs”: pressures to understand and label bodily feelings of emotional excitement in terms of his knowledge of the immediate situation o Could involve a process of social comparison to determine relative appropriateness of one’s feelings in a given situation o Something is happening to me, you are in the same situation I’m in so I can look to you to help me figure out how I should feel Role of arousal – Hohmann (1962) - Studied emotional life of paraplegics and quadriplegics with spinal cord injuries 1. The higher the lesion, less the visceral innervations 2. Expect decreasing manifestation of emotion as height of lesion increases - He interviewed respondents about feelings in situations of sexual excitement, fear, anger, grief, sentimentality - Results show that the higher the lesion the less the feeling of anger, fear, sexual excitement and grief.*important* o So the less arousal from viscera, less emotional exp Schachter 1965 – three basic propositions 1. In a state of arousal for which the individual knows no immediate explanation, he will “label” this state and describe his feelings in terms of available cognitions. a. Walk around, notice arousal, notice don’t know why, look around for exp 2. Given a state of arousal with a completely appropriate explanation (e.g., “I feel this way because of an injection of adrenaline), no evaluative needs will arise and the individual is unlikely to label his arousal in terms of alternate available cognitions. a. See state of arousal, I know why I have got it 3. Given the same cognitive circumstances, the individual will react emotionally or describe his feelings as emotional only to the extent that he experiences a state of physiological arousal. Schachter and singer 1962 1. Manipulate state of arousal experimentally. 2. Manipulate extent of explanation of bodily state. 3. Creation of situations from which explanatory cognitions may be derived. - The experimental paradigm involved giving people injections of either adrenaline or a control solution, saline, under the guise of testing the effect of a vitamin called Suproxin on visual acuity. - Independent variables: o 1. Arousal state: placebo vs. epinephrine (cause heart rate to increase leading to tremor, palpitations and accelerated breathing; occur within 3-5min) o 2. Explanation: A doctor who gave injections to the male subjects provided accurate descriptions of the effects of the drug Suproxin, misinformed subjects, or failed to tell them anything about the effects.  A) Informed: Precise explanation of the effects of the epinephrine injection. Direct information from the doctor about subjective experience  B) Ignorant: not informed about side effects  C) Misinformed: wrong symptoms o 3. Socially relevant cognitions: in case “evaluative needs” were stimulated by t
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