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University of Toronto Scarborough
Gerald Cupchik

Lecture 5 The affective process – Paul Thomas Young (1973) 1. Simple feelings: pleasantness/unpleasantness associated with odour, tastes, and other sensory excitations. 2. Negative organic feelings: hunger, thirst, pain, fatigue, and positive organic feelings of dietary satisfaction, relief, physical well-being, sex 3. Activity feelings: appetitive states such as hunger, thirst, sexual desire, eliminative urges and also including activity feelings of interest, aversion, enthusiasm, commitment, boredom, ennui, disinterest, resentment 4. Moral, aesthetic, religious, intellectual, social sentiments and attitudes which are based upon previous experience, education, training. 5. Moods of cheerfulness, elation, excitement, depression, anxiety, grief. a. Activity – pertain to actions in the world b. Sentiments and attitudes – more refined c. Moods – persistent 6. Pathological affects of deep depression, mania, apathy, anxiety, hostility. 7. Emotions of fear, anger, laughing, weeping, sexual excitement, agony, shame, humiliation, embarrassment. 8. Temperaments of individuals who are cheerful, vivacious, phlegmatic, sanguine, depressed, apathetic, moody. a. Temperaments are continuing dispositions in a person; stable though they are known to change with age, health, and environmental circumstances Emotion: acutely disturbed affective process which originates in psychological situation and which is revealed by marked bodily changes in smooth muscles, glands, and gross behaviour - Emotion is a disturbance: departure from a normal state of composure - Emotions are affective in that they are characteristically pleasant, unpleasant, or indifferently excited o Affective implies bodily states are involved o Emotion begins to occur when our attempt to cope fails – disturbance - Emotions differ from simple feelings in that they originate in perception and memory rather than receptor stimulation - Emotions differ from intraorganic feelings in that they arise from psychological situations which always include an environmental factor, present or past. o They implicate past experiences - Emotions are briefer and more intense than moods - Emotions are normal although they appear during pathological affects in persons with diff temperaments o I.e. prototypical situations may produce diff emotions in diff people Two kinds of people and two intellectual traditions - Thinkers: problem solvers who face challenges and address needs - Emotionally oriented people: experience life in depth - We reflect a balance of the 2 modes but some people tend to express more of one style - Introduction to word “emotion” o Samuel Johnson (1755) defined emotions as: disturbance of mind; vehemence of passion, pleasing or painful. o Process of secularization brought forth the use of “emotion” replacing “passion” o David Hume – emotion derived from word motion describing social/physical agitation and mental agitation or excitement o Distinction between motive and emotion replaced the reason and passions o Before the 1500s, you had either good or evil; shift from passions (which touched more religious themes) to emotions (secular shift) became is this good or bad for ME o Secularization: from religious to something that doesn’t relate to God - Locke: concerned with contents of the mind or ideas that are in your. We see the world and it becomes the contents of our mind and become associated. - Leibniz: concerned about actions of our mind. What is emotion or imagination. In other words, the kinds of things the mind can do - Boring: distinguishes between content and act psychology - Allport & Boring & Locke vs. Leibniz - German approach about whole experiences, British approach breaks experience into pieces Enlightenment root of Action theory - In emotion we find transition from: PASSIONS as signs and symptoms of a disobedient fallen soul to AFFECTIONS as enlightened movements of the rational will. - Emotions are involved in decision making; we make decisions that guide our actions which are accompanied by feelings - Distinction drawn between: - violent passions which affected a person directly thru internal or external sensation - Vs. calm, cool, or gentle passions or interests which formed gradually thru reflections on the outcomes of past actions - Feelings are the shadows of cognition (rationality); pleasure or excitement tell us whether or not we made a good decision John Locke - Addressed problem of identity and experience of a continuous self - Rational model of emotion: individuals are described as acting in a calculating manner based on cool desires and the resulting feelings of pain or pleasure provide feedback as to the success or failure of the decision. - Self: something you look at when you stand outside yourself; e.g. one who makes decision - Iden
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