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Lecture 3

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michelle Hilscher

PSYC18 -3 What is the origin of life? - Depends on who you ask o Christians: special creation Believe that god created the universe KKoZ ]Z9ZZ ]Z}L[ ZL2 o Fossil record reveals: 1. Species change 2. Speciation 3. Extinction Species alive L}Z]L[]Z]LZZ ^ ]Z lZLZ}L[]ZL} Early evolutionary theories (prior to Darwin) - Jean-Baptiste Lamarck o Transmutation of species: species change over generations o]L^]L ]o}]LZ]L } ] Zcteristics The uselack of use of a body part can be transferred to offsprings E.g. predicted that weightlifters will have big muscled babies E.g. predicted that birds that are blinded will have blind offsprings Soft heredity: belief that efforts to change phenotype can also change the genotype Non-evolutionary theories J precursors to Darwin - Charles Lyell J geologist o Solved a problem that was plagueing geologists o 9}oK9Z]ZL[LK}L}]KZ }LZ}ZK}L} species change o Therefore he suggest that the earth is older that thought: 100million years old instead of 2000-3000yrs old - Thomas Malthus J English political economist o Population growth rate > food growth rate o Too many organisms and not enough food o Creates a struggle for existence o Fittest organism favoured Charles Darwin - Z>ooL,oZZ[}l - Observes a huge variation between species and within species - E.g. different beak size of Galapagos finches o Large beaks for nuts and small beaks for berries o Variation due to environmental variation ]L[ZLoZo ]}L - Has to have the following: 1. Within species competition o Population size vs resources 2. Heritable variations o Phenotype tied to genotype 3. Conditions that differentially favour these variations o predation o E.g. peppered moths o E.g. phototropism
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