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PSYC18H3 (334)
Lecture 10

Lecture 10

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michelle Hilscher

PSYC18-10 The parent-child relationship - Newborns are pre-verbal o Expression of emotions is the only mean of communicating - Allows simple messages about basic needs o Cry = hungry, poo, upset, uncomfortable o Smile = happy, satisfied - No further differentiation required o Babies only need basic signals for basic needs o Nothing more required o ,}K]ZZL]}L}L[ZLZ o General expression is all needed, further differentiation will confuse parents - Some people think babies start differentiating emotions earlier, others later o Because of their criterion for measuring expression What is this baby expressing? - Face focus o Only look at the face o E.g. furrowed brow, downturned corner of mouth = angry o But may not be the best criterion o Baby may be just moving face muscles = non-emotional - Face + situation focus o Compare face with environment o If they match = emotional expression o E.g. baby plays with toy that makes noise, toy run out of batteries, makes expression that sad toy not making more noise o E.g. baby plays with toy and toy makes loud sound, makes expression of fear Do infants show distinct negative facial expressions for fear and anger? - Ethics J if babies cry more than 7 seconds, experiment is stopped - Capture close-}[Z L ]-angle shot of baby (body language) o Facial expression coding + body action - Body behaviour coding: o Baseline = before elicitor o Question is if expression different for anger and fear o FACS J code which muscle groups are activated - Results o Significant differences between arm and gorilla in P-value o 60 out of 72 in arm restraint condition struggle but no struggling in gorilla condition Instead they become stillno movement in gorilla condition P-value of 0.001 for increased respiration in gorilla condition though o Similarities: look towards mom in both conditions o ranks #1 struggling for restraint condition #1 increased respiration for gorilla condition o No difference in facial expression for both condition o Most common combination is crying and nose-wrinkle o No difference across cultures
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