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Lecture 4

Psychology of Emotion- Lecture 4- 31st January 2013..docx

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Gerald Cupchik

Psychology of Emotion PSYC18 Lecture 4 31 January, 2013 Goethe’s Approach Vorstellungsarten- the ways of conceiving and representing things was bound t the question of Darstellung (presentation) the question of presentation is a question of language and rhetoric As a poet, Goethe recognized with unmatched clarity the role of language in science, its symbolic and inalienably metaphorical character. There is a need for language in science, it is empirical, proof showing something, and demonstrating something. No one outside the inner circle can understand you. Analogy between science and art. Both strive to rescue phenomena from the obscurity of accident by raising them to significant eminenve and clarity, no single portrayal of phenomena rembraces the whole truth…. While some relationships migh be enhanced and clarigied, other withdraw from view. Phenomena are events of the world, we want to prevent to from obscurities. Just as art always present itself as complete in every single artwork, so should science always show itself whole in every single thing it treats. In science we want to have the complete understanding, that means talking to people about things, and narrowing things down. Pure experiences ought to live at the foundation of all natural science The event of the phenomenon constitutes the real subject of inquiry As much as possible the theory must wait upon the phenomena For Goethe, the first duty of a scientist is to explore the associations and connections of one phenomenon to another, without the intervention of a theory or hypothesis rather than try from the outset to give proof of a theory Natural history is the careful observation and description of phenomena in the world. Look at phenomena and observe it and derive a theory. Theory is a formal account of the underlying process. First you observe and then you theorize, or else you’re making a theory about nothing. A science founded in a pluralistic spirit requires two virtues above all: patienct and irony. With irony one may not be overwedded ti the supposed perfection of the truths one holds. With patience one may not rashly reject as impossible alternative one violently disagrees with. When we see our sense in an ironic sense we are able to accept humility. We need to as scientist realize that we make choices, some are good and some aren’t. We treat ourselves as process not objects. If you get a bad grade, you have to tell yourself that you can change, and improve your work. If we treat our world with patience we are very careful about our work, and how we feel about it. Wemust not exclude anyof the human powers from scientific activity. The abyss of intuition, a sure view of the present, mathematical depth, physical precision, sublimity of reason, sharpness, of intellect agile, yearning fantasy, loving joy in the sensuous. Nothing can be foregone if there is to be a lively, fruitful, seizing of the moment, through which alone a work of art, whatever its content may be, can arise. In nature nothing happens that does not stand in a relationship with the whole. How are the findings of the isolated facts in an experiment related to the whole phenomenon? You can welcome fantasy but you have to balance it with theory. If you want to be a good scientist you have to be out there in the world. A phenomena is a whole experience, divorces, failure love, are all examples of phenomena, but you want to know it from the inside out. Goethe is able to represent apparently simply facts as different moments of a single dynamic phenomenon..moments that correspond to varying condition of the basic experiment. Morphology, has to do with how organisms evolve over time With these facts we can do a re-synthesis to reconstruct the original event and experience of the phenomenon and view it again with comprehension. The idea is that things change and we want to grasp the idea of how things change, we want to observe it. Comprehnesion takes the form of a seeing embedded in the fullness of phenomenoa. Goethe’s proximate goal of this method is to achieve naturgemasses Dastellung, a presentation in accordance with nature.. which must correspond to the fundamental elements of the phenomenon in question such as the continuities, associations, contrasts and wholes. The initial work- collection examinination and organization of phenomena- must be done with the greatest of care, industry, rigor so that when wit and imagination are set loose they do not distort the phenomena at will. Every directed looking Ansehen leads to consideration.. Betrachten.. which can lead to reflection.. Sinnen every reflection to connection… Verknupten…and thus with every attentive look Blick at the world we are already theorizing. Looking at the world and theorizing, the theory comes out of the observation of the world, you are going behind the scenes. This is the process of achieving insight, you are observing the world. Goethe saw Newton as atomistic, mechanical and mathematical. Goether though of himself as incline to the genetic (versus atomistic), dynamic (versus mechanical) and concrete (versus abstract) FACT- change in the use of the term “fact” in the 18 century - Original sense in Latin, English, and the Romance languages. The word “fact was something done, a dedd and derivatively anything that occurred. - The fact had a does, a time and a place. The actor or the event was visible, in evidence. - The more modern acceptation has added a subjective component… something known by actual observation or authentic testimony (thus opposed to mere inference)- A datum of experience. - Dogma of facts was a prerequisite for the rise of positivism (it is the idea that an observation is shared, it is the belief of share observation). Comtes’s positive reveals an utter dependence on facts..”coordination of observed facts. Goether follows the logic of a phenomental, experimental science ofnature. Method: 1. Begin with a question about a natural phenomenon.. something that appears as a part of a whole 2. Discover through systematic experimentation, the condition for this appearance. 3. Vary and recomplicate the elemental condition so that the research leads back toward the orginal standpoint from which we observe and will see it with a sharper and better trained eye. Goether acquire the habit of taking careful notes of his observation…study the phenomenoa of nature in painstaking details. Gestalt Psychology Aristotle The Greek philosopher has written more than 2000 years of work Goethe Again Goethe refocused this idea on the intelligibility of things. He used the term “Gestalt” to refer to the self actualizing wholeness of organic forms. Goethe believed that all advanced structure of a plant or animal are transformation from a single fundamental organ…a King of systems Theory. You want to fulfill yourselves but you see yourself as changing all the time. Think about it in terms of plants but also your selves. Wilheim Dilthey- - He argue
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