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Lecture 5

PSYC18 - Lecture 5.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michelle Hilscher

PSYC18 – Lecture 5 Prof’s Speech - Purple Slide 3 – Put on a Happy Face - Does Feedback from the face shape how we feel? - FlloydAllport (1924): feedback from the face helps differentiate negative emotions (anger vs. fear) o There is some support for facial expression shaping the emotions we feel o We can feel general negativity and we‟ll know that because of what the face is doing  i.e. the eyes widening, furrowed brows, clenched jaw o the face helps you label or figure out what emotion it is - Sylvan Tomkins (1960s): Facial muscles differentiate all emotions o Attending to the face differentiates all emotions o Facial muscle actions helps you identify the spectrum of emotions o Face actions case emotions; facial actions are the antecedent o Affect is primarily facial behaviour o Endorses that the face is central to emotional experience Slide 4 – The Face is the Place for Emotion - A position maintained by Tomkins based on the following pieces of evidence: - 1. Newborn babies, responsiveness to facial stimulation. o Tickle cheeks, baby laughs or smiles o Facial stimulation brings the biggest response compared to other body parts - 2. Development of head movement, visual fixations, eye-hand coordination. o Development of facial muscles develops before walking, hand-eye coordination - 3. Afferent-efferent channels. o There are more afferent channels between the face and brain than between the brain and the rest of the body - 4. Facial muscles are resistant to habituation o Muscles in the face and instinctive actions are harder to dampen when carried out by the face compared to other body parts – they are involuntary responses (i.e. close eyes when someone blows air in face) - 5. Face is center of expression. o We look at another‟s face when we want to know how they feel - Body language is important, but it is not what causes the emotion Slide 6 - Ekman and Friesen (1960s): also emphasized the face as being central to emotion - BUT…emotional expression only! - The face is important, but it does not cause emotions, it is important for the expression of how we feel - Why is the face so important for expression? - Because it has a high sending capacity, facilitated by 2 things o High sending capacity – it is able to send a lot of information to other parts of the body  Facilitated by how the face is structured o 1. Anatomical independence  Brow-forehead  Eye-lids-bridge of nose  Lower face  Each zone functions independently, they can send different emotional cues simultaneously o 2. Low transmission time  Face muscles move quickly  Information can be transmitted very quickly because facial expression of emotion can show micromomentary affect display – you may not notice it at the time, but it is there Slide 8 – Does Expression Represent Actual Emotion? - Schachter & Wheeler (1962) o Male subjects viewed slapstick film o Subjects received an injection before the film o Epinephrine, Chlorpromazine or Placebo condition  If injected with epinephrine, they would laugh more  Chlorpromazine – slows you down, laugh less  Placebo – nothing out of the ordinary, laugh normally o DVs: amount of Laughter, Ratings of funniness after watching - Implications: o 1. Artificial induction of expression did not cause emotion. o 2. Artificial reduction in expression did not inhibit emotion. - Results: epinephrine leads to more laughing, chlorpromazine leads to the least amount of laughing o But it doesn‟t matter how much you laugh, it doesn‟t change how funny the film actually is – subjective ratings were the same - But this was only a study with men o Maybe there are differences for females? Slide 10 – Cukchip and Leventhal (1974) - Male & female participants, single-frame cartoons - Canned laughter present or absent (speaker playing laughter) - Dependent Measures: laughter amount and subjective rating - Expression & Evaluation - Canned laugher condition – laugh more, hearing the sounds may induce laughter - Laughing more does not change the underlying experience of emotion - Results: o For women only: canned laughter impacted evaluation o But – does this mean women were more amused in the canned laughter condition?  Women may have been more sensitive to laughter – changing the sensation internally Slide 12 – Original Question: Does Expression Represent Actual Emotion? - Early research has shown that expression is not always representative of presence, degree, or type of underlying felt emotion - We do not necessarily feel an emotion if the expression is shown o May feel neutral, but show the expression o May laugh a lot, but find material only moderately funny o People often smile when they are stressed o Expression cannot always be trusted - Not surprising - So, how to differentiate real emotional expressions from non-emotional or feigned ones? o Keltner, et al.‟s criteria: brief, involuntary, continuity  Real emotions are brief – 1-10 seconds from start to finish  Some muscle expression can‟t be inhibited – i.e. crinkling of eyes = real smile, smothering need to yawn is hard  Continuity – expression is found in the animal kingdom too o E.g., Embarrassment = real when Gaze aversion or face touching/covering, embarrassed smile, head bowing o Embarrassed smile interspersed with pressing lips o Head down  These cannot be faked Slide 14 – Is it possible to tell from someone‟s facial expressions… whether they‟re lying? - Smiles when Lying - Ekman & Friesen (1988) In JPSP - Previously thought body is better gauge than face - Face is being controlled by the liar - However, perhaps some involuntary parts to expression o Maybe there are facial components that we are not in control of o Macroexpressions vs. microexpressions  Macro – big smile  Micro – involuntary, key to true feelings, i.e. boredom in eyes Slide 15 – What is the difference between fake and real smiles? - Method: - 1. Fake and Real smiles elicited and videotaped o Focus on smiling and underlying emotion o Student nurses interviewed about a film they‟ve watched. – either about pigeons, or a gruesome film o How do you feel about the film? – told to either lie or tell the truth about what they thought o Honest vs. Deceptive interview  In the deceptive interview, they would express positive emotions, but did not feel it inside - 2. Can people spot the liars? o Interviews were videotaped and still shots were taken when the nurses smiled o New student nurses evaluate still-frame photos from videos  New set of nurses  Looked at intensity – quantity  Or looked at context – what else was going on in the face as a backdrop – quality  Looking at the quality of the smile, you will be able to detect real ones o Depends what their criteria are… quantity vs. quality.  We have facial expressions that provide cues Slide 17 - We have seen that facial expressions provide cues to observers who interpret the nature of the underlying emotion(s). - But: the same cues may be interpreted differently depending on qualities of the observer. Slide 18 – Effects of Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Expectancy on Categorization of Perceptual Cues - Atwood et al. (2009). In Psychopharmacology. - Our interest: Is alcohol consumption a factor that mediates how we decode emotional expressions in others? - Researchers noticed: o 1. Alcohol consumption + aggressive behavior  Correlation? Causation?  People who drink are more likely to be aggressive o 2. Still up in the air  Underlying mechanism… - Possible mechanism: - Sayette (1993) o executive function disrupted by alcohol  If you drink, you can mistakenly read emotions of others o Incorrect reading of facial expressions can trigger aggressive response. - Disinhibition literature (e.g., Herman & Polivy)
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