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Lecture 6

PSYC18 - Lecture 6.docx

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Michelle Hilscher

PSYC18 – Lecture 6 Prof’s Speech - Purple Slide 2 – How do emotions pertain to the body? - 1. Emotions and body action - 2. Emotions and bodily feelings Slide 3 - 1. Emotions and Body Action - Emotions cause us to take actions, cause body reactions - Body can make us feel emotion (i.e. chronic pain) - Emotion brings about reflexive body action. (Laycock, 1855) o When we feel emotions, they bring about reflexive action – action of the body in automatic ways o Once induced, reflex allows us to respond to the environment - Sylvan Tomkins (1960s): Facial muscles differentiate all emotions - Once induced by emotion, reflex action: o a. mediates between organism & environment o b. functions according to principle of self-preservation – protects life o c. is automatic; unconscious; not deliberating about what to do; don’t have much power over the actions - Harvey Carr (1873 - 1954) o It is not that emotions lead us to reflex – emotions tell us that there is a problem, and we have to deliberate what to do o Emotion calls for deliberate action: o “Emotional reactions are awakened when the organism is unable to respond in an orderly and efficient fashion to a highly stimulating situation”  When we encounter situations where instincts don’t work, emotions signal that you need to think about the situation and find a deliberate response  Emotion signals failure of instinct or presence of novelty – instinct may have failed or been blocked o How is emotion adaptive?  Energy that can be discharged by the body… something that tends to “awaken a vigorous appropriate adjustment”  Emotions help you plan  Novelty – not able to perform the default because there is no instinctive behaviour, you play with the situation and figure out the best reaction  Energy driven effort towards problem solving Slide 5 - John B. Watson (1878 - 1958) o Pattern theory of emotion: o “An emotion is a hereditary pattern-reaction involving changes of the bodily mechanism as a whole, but particularly of the visceral and glandular systems.” o Interpreted: o Emotions: instinctive responses to environmental stimuli.  Emotions are unconditional responses that occur given certain triggering stimuli  i.e. when you lose a valued love one, the unconditional response is sadness  unconditional response of rage = constrain someone’s movement o Two-part bodily response. o Watson adds: Emotions can be swayed by conditioning. o Watson is different from others – also talks about the internal workings of the body  Emotion changes how the body and physiology work (organs and autonomic nervous system)  Qualifier – there are certain things that will cause unconditioned responses – but organisms can learn, can sway (diminish/eradicate) emotional response through conditioning Slide 6 - Clearly: o Emotions can HELP: they aid in self-preservation. o Heuristics for adaptive behavior  Heuristics are shortcuts that encourage us to engage in adaptive behaviours without overthinking  If we don’t have heuristics, we are likely to be left behind (won’t adapt fast enough) o Appraisal of good vs. bad  We know if situations are good or bad for us; if our goals are in jeopardy o Aid in maintenance of homeostasis (stability of the body)  Tell us when to engage in certain actions – i.e. to eat, sleep, keep warm, etc. - But o Emotions may also HINDER o e.g., Yerkes-Dodson Law  “The over-eager golfer, teeing off, makes a poor shot”  i.e. exam performance – a moderate amount of stress is needed for optimal performance  arousal can be low, medium, or high; it is the amount of activity or energy in the body and it can equate with level of emotion, i.e. level of stress Slide 8 - 2. Emotions and Bodily Feelings - Emotions can cause, facilitate, or interfere w/ bodily action – physiological responses - Emotions also associated with bodily sensations: - i.e. heart rate, butterflies - cause & caused by bodily sensations - Bodily sensations are likely caused by emotions - i.e. when you feel disgusted, you feel nauseous - i.e. when you feel depressed, you may be vulnerable to chronic pain - So, conventionally: - EVENT  EMOTION  BODILY CHANGE + ACTION - Events that happen make us feel emotions that trigger a bodily change/response and a corresponding action - But for James: - EVENT  BODILY CHANGE + ACTION  EMOTION - For James, emotion is experienced when there is a change in the state of body - Change in the state of the body causes emotion - i.e. one feels afraid because we tremble, or feels sad because we cry - similar to Tomkins – doesn’t stop at the face, includes the whole body Slide 9 – Illustration of Contrast - Conventional version? - When a bear is present – feel fear, run - When pickles are present – think of pickles (event), feel positive response if like pickles (emotional response) - Jamesian version? - When bear is present – run, then feel fear because you have observed body’s response - When pickles are present – ate one, so must like them – reflects on action, labels action Slide 10 – Gregorio Maranon & W.B. Cannon - Maranon forgotten although he inspired Cannon’s critique of James. - Maranon does not know that his research is a test of James’ theory - Cannon – borrows Maranon’s work to challenge James - Maranon: What happens when people are injected with adrenaline? o There is an increase in bodily sensation o Assumes there is a change in emotionality o 79% of subjects only notice the bodily arousal o They are aware of the arousal and the symptomatology of emotion, and they do not mistake the arousal for emotion  Symptomatology: they realize the sensation is something they would feel when they feel certain emotions, but they know they don’t feel that emotion at the time o 21% mistake the arousal for emotion o These subjects bring stress from their personal lives, which after being injected is a psychological motif – they superimpose this and then have the full experience of the sensation; they experience the full emotion, but not because of the arousal, because of personal memories that allows the emotion to conceptualize Slide 11 - 1. FIRST DEGREE REACTION o Subjective perception, “en froid,” of somatic disturbance o 79% of 210 subjects o Awareness of bodily arousal o Awareness of autonomic symptomatology of emotion. o Yet, experienced incomplete emotion o e.g., “as if I were frightened, however, I am calm” - 2. SECOND DEGREE REACTION o Entire felt emotion o Remaining 21% o Psychological component to the experience, not just bodily arousal. o “Psychological emotion is superimposed upon the autonomic reaction and is apprehended as a complete affective state.” - What was the difference for these participants? o “A psychological motif” was present to justify the bodily feelings. Slide 13 – Maranon’s Two-factor theory of Emotion - Maranon – need to have both (injection and memory related to emotion) o For the arousal to become emotion, subject needs the injection and has to be thinking about something related to a certain emotion (context) o Need thinking to feel the emotion - In correspondence with findings, emotion is comprised of: - 1. A bodily component (l’émotion végétative) - 2. A psychological component (l’émotion psychique) - Co-presence of both enables a complete affective state. - Preferably… psychological before bodily. Slide 14 – Cannon’s Official Critique of James - Cannon – borrowed the ideas of Maranon - Recall James: autonomic specificity for emotion. o James: the particular actions of the body is combined to give rise to emotion - Yet, Cannon points out… - 1. Same bodily changes accompany different emotions. o e.g., general arousal response o Cannon: this cannot be true because evidence shows that the same body changes accompany different emotions  i.e. heart rate, adrenaline release across multiple emotion responses (fear, anger, sexual desire) - 2. Autonomic changes are incremental. o We have changes in the autonomic nervous system that are incremental that cannot account for emotional change because of the intensity of the change and the not so big of a change in the body - 3. Autonomic changes are too slow. o Response of the body is very slow o i.e. feeling fear – the emotion triggers bodily response Slide 15 - 4. Autonomic changes for non-emotional experiences. o There are also body changes that occur when you are not feeling any emotions  i.e. running for a bus – not necessarily dependent on emotional stimuli - 5. Often insensitive to autonomic nervous system changes. o How do we know/monitor heart rate in a loud place?  A lot of the time – we are insensitive to body changes, so how can this lead to emotion? - In accordance with this critique… the Two-Factor Theory o As formalized by Schachter and Singer (1962): o Bodily arousal + Appraisal  Appraisal – reflecting on the arousal; the idea that you have to reflect on what is going on around you  For the full-blown emotion – you need both the appraisal and the bodily arousal  Schachter borrowed the idea of appraisal fromFestinger o Festinger  People want to understand and label their bodily feelings  Automatically want to know what the source is  To label feelings, bring context to the arousal; how the body is feeling in response to the situation  i.e. a gunshot in an alley – bring knowledge of guns and alleys, and then feel fear Slide 17 - If no previously stored knowledge is available, then what? o What happens in novel situations?  Make social comparisons  Look to see what others are doing to interpret the arousal; look to others to guide how you will behave - 2. Social comparison o Classic study by Schachter and Singer (1962) o Manipulated state of arousal experimentally  Manipulate the state of the participant’s body by injections and offer information about what the body is doing o Manipulated extent of explanation of bodily state o Created situations from which explanatory cognitions may be derived. o Manipulated social comparisons by providing confederates to model situations Slide 18 - Arousal Manipulation; injected with: o Saline or Epinephrine  Epinephrine = adrenaline, results in increased heart rate, dry mouth, etc.  Saline = nothing, control o Symptoms… - Explanation Manipulation: o Informed, ignorant or misinformed. o Informed – detailed explanation, participant Knew what to expect o Alternate - doctor injects participant and leaves o Misinformed – doctor injects participant and gives the wrong explanation, leaving participant with the wrong expectations - Social Comparison Manipulation: o Role
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