PSYC18 – Lecture 6 Prof’s Speech - Purple
Slide 2 – How do emotions pertain to the body?
- 1. Emotions and body action
- 2. Emotions and bodily feelings
- 1. Emotions and Body Action
- Emotions cause us to take actions, cause body reactions
- Body can make us feel emotion (i.e. chronic pain)
- Emotion brings about reflexive body action. (Laycock, 1855)
o When we feel emotions, they bring about reflexive action – action of the body in
o Once induced, reflex allows us to respond to the environment
- Sylvan Tomkins (1960s): Facial muscles differentiate all emotions
- Once induced by emotion, reflex action:
o a. mediates between organism & environment
o b. functions according to principle of self-preservation – protects life
o c. is automatic; unconscious; not deliberating about what to do; don’t have much power
over the actions
- Harvey Carr (1873 - 1954)
o It is not that emotions lead us to reflex – emotions tell us that there is a problem, and we
have to deliberate what to do
o Emotion calls for deliberate action:
o “Emotional reactions are awakened when the organism is unable to respond in an orderly
and efficient fashion to a highly stimulating situation”
When we encounter situations where instincts don’t work, emotions signal that
you need to think about the situation and find a deliberate response
Emotion signals failure of instinct or presence of novelty – instinct may have
failed or been blocked
o How is emotion adaptive?
Energy that can be discharged by the body… something that tends to “awaken a
vigorous appropriate adjustment”
Emotions help you plan
Novelty – not able to perform the default because there is no instinctive
behaviour, you play with the situation and figure out the best reaction
Energy driven effort towards problem solving
- John B. Watson (1878 - 1958)
o Pattern theory of emotion:
o “An emotion is a hereditary pattern-reaction involving changes of the bodily mechanism
as a whole, but particularly of the visceral and glandular systems.”
o Emotions: instinctive responses to environmental stimuli.
Emotions are unconditional responses that occur given certain triggering stimuli
i.e. when you lose a valued love one, the unconditional response is
unconditional response of rage = constrain someone’s movement
o Two-part bodily response. o Watson adds: Emotions can be swayed by conditioning.
o Watson is different from others – also talks about the internal workings of the body
Emotion changes how the body and physiology work (organs and autonomic
Qualifier – there are certain things that will cause unconditioned responses – but
organisms can learn, can sway (diminish/eradicate) emotional response through
o Emotions can HELP: they aid in self-preservation.
o Heuristics for adaptive behavior
Heuristics are shortcuts that encourage us to engage in adaptive behaviours
If we don’t have heuristics, we are likely to be left behind (won’t adapt fast
o Appraisal of good vs. bad
We know if situations are good or bad for us; if our goals are in jeopardy
o Aid in maintenance of homeostasis (stability of the body)
Tell us when to engage in certain actions – i.e. to eat, sleep, keep warm, etc.
o Emotions may also HINDER
o e.g., Yerkes-Dodson Law
“The over-eager golfer, teeing off, makes a poor shot”
i.e. exam performance – a moderate amount of stress is needed for optimal
arousal can be low, medium, or high; it is the amount of activity or energy in the
body and it can equate with level of emotion, i.e. level of stress
- 2. Emotions and Bodily Feelings
- Emotions can cause, facilitate, or interfere w/ bodily action – physiological responses
- Emotions also associated with bodily sensations:
- i.e. heart rate, butterflies
- cause & caused by bodily sensations
- Bodily sensations are likely caused by emotions
- i.e. when you feel disgusted, you feel nauseous
- i.e. when you feel depressed, you may be vulnerable to chronic pain
- So, conventionally:
- EVENT EMOTION BODILY CHANGE + ACTION
- Events that happen make us feel emotions that trigger a bodily change/response
and a corresponding action
- But for James:
- EVENT BODILY CHANGE + ACTION EMOTION
- For James, emotion is experienced when there is a change in the state of body
- Change in the state of the body causes emotion
- i.e. one feels afraid because we tremble, or feels sad because we cry
- similar to Tomkins – doesn’t stop at the face, includes the whole body
Slide 9 – Illustration of Contrast
- Conventional version? - When a bear is present – feel fear, run
- When pickles are present – think of pickles (event), feel positive response if like pickles
- Jamesian version?
- When bear is present – run, then feel fear because you have observed body’s response
- When pickles are present – ate one, so must like them – reflects on action, labels action
Slide 10 – Gregorio Maranon & W.B. Cannon
- Maranon forgotten although he inspired Cannon’s critique of James.
- Maranon does not know that his research is a test of James’ theory
- Cannon – borrows Maranon’s work to challenge James
- Maranon: What happens when people are injected with adrenaline?
o There is an increase in bodily sensation
o Assumes there is a change in emotionality
o 79% of subjects only notice the bodily arousal
o They are aware of the arousal and the symptomatology of emotion, and they do not
mistake the arousal for emotion
Symptomatology: they realize the sensation is something they would feel when
they feel certain emotions, but they know they don’t feel that emotion at the time
o 21% mistake the arousal for emotion
o These subjects bring stress from their personal lives, which after being injected is a
psychological motif – they superimpose this and then have the full experience of the
sensation; they experience the full emotion, but not because of the arousal, because of
personal memories that allows the emotion to conceptualize
- 1. FIRST DEGREE REACTION
o Subjective perception, “en froid,” of somatic disturbance
o 79% of 210 subjects
o Awareness of bodily arousal
o Awareness of autonomic symptomatology of emotion.
o Yet, experienced incomplete emotion
o e.g., “as if I were frightened, however, I am calm”
- 2. SECOND DEGREE REACTION
o Entire felt emotion
o Remaining 21%
o Psychological component to the experience, not just bodily arousal.
o “Psychological emotion is superimposed upon the autonomic reaction and is apprehended
as a complete affective state.”
- What was the difference for these participants?
o “A psychological motif” was present to justify the bodily feelings.
Slide 13 – Maranon’s Two-factor theory of Emotion
- Maranon – need to have both (injection and memory related to emotion)
o For the arousal to become emotion, subject needs the injection and has to be thinking
about something related to a certain emotion (context)
o Need thinking to feel the emotion
- In correspondence with findings, emotion is comprised of:
- 1. A bodily component (l’émotion végétative)
- 2. A psychological component (l’émotion psychique)
- Co-presence of both enables a complete affective state. - Preferably… psychological before bodily.
Slide 14 – Cannon’s Official Critique of James
- Cannon – borrowed the ideas of Maranon
- Recall James: autonomic specificity for emotion.
o James: the particular actions of the body is combined to give rise to emotion
- Yet, Cannon points out…
- 1. Same bodily changes accompany different emotions.
o e.g., general arousal response
o Cannon: this cannot be true because evidence shows that the same body changes
accompany different emotions
i.e. heart rate, adrenaline release across multiple emotion responses (fear, anger,
- 2. Autonomic changes are incremental.
o We have changes in the autonomic nervous system that are incremental that cannot
account for emotional change because of the intensity of the change and the not so big of
a change in the body
- 3. Autonomic changes are too slow.
o Response of the body is very slow
o i.e. feeling fear – the emotion triggers bodily response
- 4. Autonomic changes for non-emotional experiences.
o There are also body changes that occur when you are not feeling any emotions
i.e. running for a bus – not necessarily dependent on emotional stimuli
- 5. Often insensitive to autonomic nervous system changes.
o How do we know/monitor heart rate in a loud place?
A lot of the time – we are insensitive to body changes, so how can this lead to
- In accordance with this critique… the Two-Factor Theory
o As formalized by Schachter and Singer (1962):
o Bodily arousal + Appraisal
Appraisal – reflecting on the arousal; the idea that you have to reflect on what is
going on around you
For the full-blown emotion – you need both the appraisal and the bodily arousal
Schachter borrowed the idea of appraisal fromFestinger
People want to understand and label their bodily feelings
Automatically want to know what the source is
To label feelings, bring context to the arousal; how the body is feeling in
response to the situation
i.e. a gunshot in an alley – bring knowledge of guns and alleys, and then feel fear
- If no previously stored knowledge is available, then what?
o What happens in novel situations?
Make social comparisons
Look to see what others are doing to interpret the arousal; look to others to guide
how you will behave
- 2. Social comparison
o Classic study by Schachter and Singer (1962) o Manipulated state of arousal experimentally
Manipulate the state of the participant’s body by injections and offer information
about what the body is doing
o Manipulated extent of explanation of bodily state
o Created situations from which explanatory cognitions may be derived.
o Manipulated social comparisons by providing confederates to model situations
- Arousal Manipulation; injected with:
o Saline or Epinephrine
Epinephrine = adrenaline, results in increased heart rate, dry mouth, etc.
Saline = nothing, control
- Explanation Manipulation:
o Informed, ignorant or misinformed.
o Informed – detailed explanation, participant Knew what to expect
o Alternate - doctor injects participant and leaves
o Misinformed – doctor injects participant and gives the wrong explanation, leaving
participant with the wrong expectations
- Social Comparison Manipulation: