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Lecture

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC18H3
Professor
Michelle Hilscher
Semester
Summer

Description
PSYC18 Psychology of Emotion Lecture 7: Outline: 1) Historical emphasis on brain causing emotions 2) Breaking down the brain: Where do emotions happen & How are they controlled? 3) Recent research about amygdale & limbic system 4) A fundamental divide? Left- vs. right-brain debate @ZŒ]LµZZK}š]}LZ; - Z}‰‰}Zš}šZ}Ç; - Peripheralist (body feedback) vs centralist (feedback from brain/CNS) model - Historically these models have been pitted against each other Recall Plato - Three-part soul J passionate soul resides in the chest causes emotions like courage - Centralist for cognition - Peripheralist for emotion Then Along came Galen - Body & brain responsible for distinct processes: 1. Heart, vital spirits - The heart passes the air thru a filter (vital spirits), allow for bodily processes 2. Œ]L7^KŒÀo}µZLš_Ç]oZ refined animal spirits J these spirits cause emotions - For emotion: a peripheralist or centralist? CENTRALIST David Hartley (1705-1757) - Pain, pleasure, & complex emotions result from vibrations in the brain. - Emotional Conditioning o A result of fusion: o Co-activation of brain regions that becomes physiologically fixed due to repeated exposure to two stimuli. - ]À Z]oL] ŒK }LÁZ]oZ[Z doing math J you can get a physiological link between region A and B So What is Pleasure for Hartley? - Pleasure = moderate vibration - Pain = excessive vibration - 9]L]ZL}šZ]L2K}ŒšZL^‰oZµŒ ŒŒ]Ç}L]šZµo]K]š:_ Modern Explanation: What parts of the brain produce & control emotions? - This necessitates a high-speed overview of brain anatomy: 1. Different brain regions = different functions. o Hind Brain: ƒ Controls basic physiological processes ƒ Pons J sleep wake cycles ƒ Cerebellum J balance and controlling motor movements o Forebrain: ƒ Regulates more complex actions of body. ƒ Cognition & emotion ƒ Limbic system & prefrontal cortex key for emotional processes including emotion regulation. ƒ Thalamus* J in charge of sensations, integrates them and delivers it upward J connected to entire limbic system, sends info directly to limbic system before the higher up processes (limbic system = automatic unconscious reflexes) www.notesolution.com ƒ Hippocampus J in charge of memory (emotions can shape memory) ƒ Olfactory bulb J in charge of smell, hooked onto amygdala The Amygdala - Appraises sensory information. - /š]Zo}}l]L2}ŒšZŒšZ7Z}]ZZLZ]š]Àš}^}}_L^_‹µo]š]Z]LLÀ]Œ}LKLš: - Z^K}š]}Lo }K‰µšŒ7_KÇ2o9 (a) Determines if there is cause for emotion. (b) Prescribes automatic behavior. The Collective Limbic System - Informed by the amygdala. - Z}LKÇ2o[ZÀŒ] š7 ŒšZ]ŒLšK}š]}LoƉŒ]L ZLL šZ]ŒLš emotional expressions. - Amydgala = determines if there is a cause for emotion, limbic system = emotional expression Anderson and Phelps (2002) - Evidence to support whole system view for felt emotion - Compared people with and without amygdala damage, found that there is no difference between them in terms of felt emotions The Prefrontal Cortex - Permits emotion regulation in the following domains: initiation, inhibition, and modulation of: o felt emotion o actions/expressions J may feel sad but stop crying o physiology o emotion-related cognition J steer you away from pessimistic thinking The Amygdala: Checking in on Recent Research Oatley: - Amygdala is primary appraiser. - Sensitive to basic goal = self-preservation. o active when eating food that tastes bad, when watching a sad movie - General consensus and plenty of evidence to support this. - One question that still remains unanswered: o JZš]ZKÇ2o[ZŒ}o]L o]L] o‰ŒZZ]}LM Starting Point to Answer this Question: - Z oo; - Yoon et al. (2009) study about depression-related bias when people look at two emotional faces. - Those with Clinical Depression are more sensitive to the mildly angry face being more intense than mildly happy face What is the Difference? - Amygdala activation or amygdale volume? - Functional or Structural? - Hajek et al. (2009). Amygdala volumes in mood disorders: Meta-analysis of magnetic resonance volumetry studies. Journal of Affective Disorders Logic Underlying Meta-Analysis - Individual studies weak because of: o small sample sizes o demographics not controlled for adequately o methodological heterogeneity - Thus, a single study is underpowered. www.notesolution.com - Meta-analysi
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