Class Notes (839,394)
Canada (511,324)
Psychology (7,818)
PSYC18H3 (334)
Lecture 7

PSYC18 - Lecture 7.docx

7 Pages

Course Code
Michelle Hilscher

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 7 pages of the document.
PSYC18 – Lecture 7 Prof’s Speech - Purple Slide 3 – The Brain Causes Emotions - As opposed to the body… - peripheralist vs. centralist models o peripheralist view – peripheral nervous system is the source of emotion  William James = peripheralist o Centralist view – the brain is the underlying source - Historically these models have been pitted against each other… Slide 4 – Recall Plato - Three-part soul o Reason is found in the head o Chest is the locus of noble emotion (courage) o Belly is the locus of based emotion (lust) - Centralist for cognition - Peripheralist for emotion Slide 5 – Then Along Came Galen - Galen – centralist - Separates the brain and body - Body and brain responsible for distinct processes: o 1. Heart, vital spirits  Filters air and purifies it yielding vital spirits to drive body (motor activity) but not pure enough for psychological processes  Animal spirits give rise to psychological processes o 2. Brain, “marvelous net” yields refined animal spirits  The brain is an important source for emotionality and cognition - For emotion: a peripheralist or centralist? Slide 6 – David Hartley (1705-1757) - Centralist - Pain, pleasure, and complex emotions result from vibrations in the brain o Different locations in the brain vibrate - Emotional Conditioning is a result of fusion: - Co-activation of brain regions that become physiologically fixed due to repeated exposure to two stimuli o If co-activate 2 zones – bridge is built between the 2 regions - E.g. after repeated pairings of ice cream and math o 2 different regions are involved when you eat ice cream, enjoy it and when you complete a math problem  Emotional conditioning: Hartley says to enjoy math, give ice cream to activate the region that is related to enjoyment Slide 7 – So What is Pleasure for Hartley? - Pleasure = moderate vibration in the brain - Pain = excessive vibration in the brain - Pain is nothing more than “pleasure carried beyond its due limit.” Slide 8 – Modern Explanation - What parts of the brain produce and control emotions? - Different regions of the brain have different functions - This necessitates a high-speed overview of brain anatomy: - 1. Different brain regions = different functions. - Hind Brain: - Controls basic physiological processes - Medulla: cardiovascular activity - Pons: sleep-wake cycle - Cerebellum: motor behaviour - Forebrain: - Regulates more complex actions of body - Initiates and regulates cognitions & emotions - Limbic system & prefrontal cortex key for emotional processes including emotion regulation - Thalamus: takes individual pieces of sensory information (i.e. image/sounds/scent) and integrates them - Hypothalamus: activities, behaviour in the body - Involved in regulating eating, sexual behaviour, socially contingent behaviour - Hippocampus: memory - Cortex: planful behaviour; goal orientation - Prefrontal cortex: emotion regulation Slide 10 – The Limbic System - Amygdala is on the tip of the limbic system - Closed located to the hippocampus (because they are very involved in working together) o Flash vault memory – negative form of memory, narrowing effect, helps construct/decode things - Diagram on slide 11 – F: amygdala o B: olfactory tract  Tied to the limbic system because it has a strong relationship with smell and developing relationships (i.e. attachment) o E: thalamus  Connects to the end of the limbic system  Integrates sensory information and send it to the limbic system  Also sends information higher up in the brain for more elaborative and slow processing Slide 12 – The Amygdala - Appraises sensory information primarily o Looking to see if things are good or bad - It is looking for threats, so is sensitive to “Good” and “Bad” qualities in environment. - As the “emotional computer,” amygdala: o A. Determines if there is cause for emotion (a threat) o B. Prescribes automatic behaviour  Necessitates limbic system to deal with issue if there is one  Passes the message to the limbic system  When prescribing automatic behaviour, if there is an issue, it tells the limbic system, which is the best course of action  It detects threat, suggests the appropriate form of response to the limbic system (i.e. approach or flee) Slide 13 – The Collective Limbic System - Informed by the amygdala. - Based on amygdala’s verdict, creates different emotional experiences and enacts different emotional expressions. o Limbic system will activate system(s) in the body to carry out responses o The limbic system responds pretty quickly to things - Authors: we do not need the amygdala to experience emotions - Anderson and Phelps (2002) o Evidence to support whole system view for felt emotion. o Amygdala is automatic, rapid appraiser, but not the only appraiser. Slide 14 – The Prefrontal Cortex - Deliberates, even overrides prescriptions - Emotion regulation: ability to initiate, inhibit, and modulate (switch from one state to another) felt emotions and actions - Prefrontal cortex allows us to inhibit particular emotions - Allows shifting from one state to another - Can make us put on a happy face because it is demanded of us in a particular situation - Can tell us when we need to slow down, regulate breathing, modulate physiology - Can force/guide you to particular styles of thinking (i.e. pessimistic/optimistic) - Permits emotion regulation in the following domains: - felt emotion - actions/expressions - physiology - emotion-related cognition Slide 15 - the neocortex allows you to “enjoy misery” - the neocortex acts at a conscious level and acts slowly Slide 16 – The Amgydala: Checking in on Recent Research - Reveals a debate about the specialization of the amygdala - Basic needs, non-social threats and rewards - Complex social needs, social threats and rewards - Looks for sensory information that can inform it about how the organism is doing - Interested in keeping you alive; away from physiological threats (e.g. snake about to strike) - Specialized to detect social threats and rewards Slide 17 - Position 1 is outlined by Keltner, Oatley & Jenkins: - Amygdala is primary appraiser - The amygdala gets information from the thalamus and rapidly considers if there is a threat or not - Sensitive to basic goal = self-preservation. o Sensitive to self-preservation goals only o Active when views a face the depicts fear - General consensus and plenty of evidence to support this. o e.g., active when disgusted. o e.g., active when primed subconsciously. Slide 18 - Evidence for Position 2: - 1. Adolphs, Baron-Cohen & Tranel (2002): o Patients w/ unilateral amygdala damage vs. controls. o Labeling task for facial expressions that depicted:  a. basic emotions  emotions that can be felt without dependence on social context  b. socially complex emotions  absolutely social; need the presence of another person to feel Slide 19 - Revealed: o Figure 1: recognition for basic emotions… o Figure 2: recognition for socially complex emotions… o Overall: Greater impairment for socially complex emotions than basic emotions for patients w/ amygdala damage. - The amygdala-damaged patient has a deficit in their ability to label basic emotions and complex emotions o There is a greater loss
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.