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Lecture 7

PSYC18 - Lecture 7.docx

7 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC18H3
Professor
Michelle Hilscher

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PSYC18 – Lecture 7 Prof’s Speech - Purple Slide 3 – The Brain Causes Emotions - As opposed to the body… - peripheralist vs. centralist models o peripheralist view – peripheral nervous system is the source of emotion  William James = peripheralist o Centralist view – the brain is the underlying source - Historically these models have been pitted against each other… Slide 4 – Recall Plato - Three-part soul o Reason is found in the head o Chest is the locus of noble emotion (courage) o Belly is the locus of based emotion (lust) - Centralist for cognition - Peripheralist for emotion Slide 5 – Then Along Came Galen - Galen – centralist - Separates the brain and body - Body and brain responsible for distinct processes: o 1. Heart, vital spirits  Filters air and purifies it yielding vital spirits to drive body (motor activity) but not pure enough for psychological processes  Animal spirits give rise to psychological processes o 2. Brain, “marvelous net” yields refined animal spirits  The brain is an important source for emotionality and cognition - For emotion: a peripheralist or centralist? Slide 6 – David Hartley (1705-1757) - Centralist - Pain, pleasure, and complex emotions result from vibrations in the brain o Different locations in the brain vibrate - Emotional Conditioning is a result of fusion: - Co-activation of brain regions that become physiologically fixed due to repeated exposure to two stimuli o If co-activate 2 zones – bridge is built between the 2 regions - E.g. after repeated pairings of ice cream and math o 2 different regions are involved when you eat ice cream, enjoy it and when you complete a math problem  Emotional conditioning: Hartley says to enjoy math, give ice cream to activate the region that is related to enjoyment Slide 7 – So What is Pleasure for Hartley? - Pleasure = moderate vibration in the brain - Pain = excessive vibration in the brain - Pain is nothing more than “pleasure carried beyond its due limit.” Slide 8 – Modern Explanation - What parts of the brain produce and control emotions? - Different regions of the brain have different functions - This necessitates a high-speed overview of brain anatomy: - 1. Different brain regions = different functions. - Hind Brain: - Controls basic physiological processes - Medulla: cardiovascular activity - Pons: sleep-wake cycle - Cerebellum: motor behaviour - Forebrain: - Regulates more complex actions of body - Initiates and regulates cognitions & emotions - Limbic system & prefrontal cortex key for emotional processes including emotion regulation - Thalamus: takes individual pieces of sensory information (i.e. image/sounds/scent) and integrates them - Hypothalamus: activities, behaviour in the body - Involved in regulating eating, sexual behaviour, socially contingent behaviour - Hippocampus: memory - Cortex: planful behaviour; goal orientation - Prefrontal cortex: emotion regulation Slide 10 – The Limbic System - Amygdala is on the tip of the limbic system - Closed located to the hippocampus (because they are very involved in working together) o Flash vault memory – negative form of memory, narrowing effect, helps construct/decode things - Diagram on slide 11 – F: amygdala o B: olfactory tract  Tied to the limbic system because it has a strong relationship with smell and developing relationships (i.e. attachment) o E: thalamus  Connects to the end of the limbic system  Integrates sensory information and send it to the limbic system  Also sends information higher up in the brain for more elaborative and slow processing Slide 12 – The Amygdala - Appraises sensory information primarily o Looking to see if things are good or bad - It is looking for threats, so is sensitive to “Good” and “Bad” qualities in environment. - As the “emotional computer,” amygdala: o A. Determines if there is cause for emotion (a threat) o B. Prescribes automatic behaviour  Necessitates limbic system to deal with issue if there is one  Passes the message to the limbic system  When prescribing automatic behaviour, if there is an issue, it tells the limbic system, which is the best course of action  It detects threat, suggests the appropriate form of response to the limbic system (i.e. approach or flee) Slide 13 – The Collective Limbic System - Informed by the amygdala. - Based on amygdala’s verdict, creates different emotional experiences and enacts different emotional expressions. o Limbic system will activate system(s) in the body to carry out responses o The limbic system responds pretty quickly to things - Authors: we do not need the amygdala to experience emotions - Anderson and Phelps (2002) o Evidence to support whole system view for felt emotion. o Amygdala is automatic, rapid appraiser, but not the only appraiser. Slide 14 – The Prefrontal Cortex - Deliberates, even overrides prescriptions - Emotion regulation: ability to initiate, inhibit, and modulate (switch from one state to another) felt emotions and actions - Prefrontal cortex allows us to inhibit particular emotions - Allows shifting from one state to another - Can make us put on a happy face because it is demanded of us in a particular situation - Can tell us when we need to slow down, regulate breathing, modulate physiology - Can force/guide you to particular styles of thinking (i.e. pessimistic/optimistic) - Permits emotion regulation in the following domains: - felt emotion - actions/expressions - physiology - emotion-related cognition Slide 15 - the neocortex allows you to “enjoy misery” - the neocortex acts at a conscious level and acts slowly Slide 16 – The Amgydala: Checking in on Recent Research - Reveals a debate about the specialization of the amygdala - Basic needs, non-social threats and rewards - Complex social needs, social threats and rewards - Looks for sensory information that can inform it about how the organism is doing - Interested in keeping you alive; away from physiological threats (e.g. snake about to strike) - Specialized to detect social threats and rewards Slide 17 - Position 1 is outlined by Keltner, Oatley & Jenkins: - Amygdala is primary appraiser - The amygdala gets information from the thalamus and rapidly considers if there is a threat or not - Sensitive to basic goal = self-preservation. o Sensitive to self-preservation goals only o Active when views a face the depicts fear - General consensus and plenty of evidence to support this. o e.g., active when disgusted. o e.g., active when primed subconsciously. Slide 18 - Evidence for Position 2: - 1. Adolphs, Baron-Cohen & Tranel (2002): o Patients w/ unilateral amygdala damage vs. controls. o Labeling task for facial expressions that depicted:  a. basic emotions  emotions that can be felt without dependence on social context  b. socially complex emotions  absolutely social; need the presence of another person to feel Slide 19 - Revealed: o Figure 1: recognition for basic emotions… o Figure 2: recognition for socially complex emotions… o Overall: Greater impairment for socially complex emotions than basic emotions for patients w/ amygdala damage. - The amygdala-damaged patient has a deficit in their ability to label basic emotions and complex emotions o There is a greater loss
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