PSYC18 – Lecture 9 Prof’s Speech - Purple
Slide 3 – Parent-Child Relationships are the Foundation for:
- Skills that you presumably build with primary caregivers are skills that you take to the real world
- The hope is that what you learn at home will be applied adaptively to life
- If things go well – child hopefully builds emotional competence – set of skills that are hopefully
the goal of emotional development
- Meta-cognitive skills
o Thinking about thinking
o Reflecting on own psychology; own mental activity
o Ability to attribute mental states to others
o The child is able to understand that their beliefs and knowledge are different than that of
- Emotional Intelligence
o Recognizing and controlling own emotions
o Responding to emotions of others
- First step – when a child realizes that they are an emotional being
Slide 4 – This Skill Set Starts Being Built in Childhood
- Emotion is the key to skill acquisition!!!
- Emotional expressions are the first language between parents and children.
- Emotions allow parents and children to bond.
- Emotions are socially motivating on both sides… encouraging parents to teach and children to
o Parents have to feel emotion (love) for the child in order to be motivated to take care of
Slide 5 – Emotion is the first language
- Emotional expression key for communication between parents and children of all ages
- Allow simple messages of basic needs to be transmitted to parents
o i.e. crying – I am in pain, hungry, negative expression
- In newborns…
o allows simple messages about basic needs
o no further differentiation required
newborns do not have to differentiate between felt emotional states because they
only have basic needs (eat, sleep, clean), and they just need to cry when their
basic needs are neglected
cry does not have to be specific - newborns just need a basic signal
- When do babies start exhibiting distinct negative emotions?
o Depends on the criteria being used by the researcher
Slide 6 – What is this baby expressing?
- Your answer depends on the criteria you use
- 1. Face focus
o Is this the best criterion?
A child expressing anger may not be giving an accurate reading of their internal
feelings What is the situation/context?
- 2. Face + situation focus
o Labeling of the expression depends on what elicitor it was partnered with
o For instance…
o Does facial expression change when you change the situation?
Different expressions elicited mean that differentiated emotional expression are
demonstrated by the child
o Conclusions depend on methods being used
Slide 7 – When studying emotional expressions in babies
- Your conclusions will depend on the method you used.
- When do babies first communicate discrete negative emotions?
- Face-only method: less criteria, at 3 months different emotions are seen
- Face and elicitor method: stricter criteria, after more than 1 year of age different emotions are
- Fear and surprise seem to occur late on
Slide 8 – Do infants show distinct negative facial expressions for fear and anger?
- Camras et al. (2007). In Infancy.
- Seventy-two 11-month-old infants
- Cross-cultural sample: US, Japan, China
- Basic emotions of fear and anger
- Child was put in a high chair
- Within-subjects design with two conditions.
- Arm restraint to elicit anger
- Researcher seems to be friendly but then holds the child‟s arm down, frustrating the child
- Growling gorilla to elicit fear
- Fear induction
- Gorilla toy is wired to be remotely activated
- Ethical rule – if child cries for more than 7 seconds, have to stop
- Ethics: 7 second rule
- Play session was required in between the two conditions to limit carryover effects
- Captured video footage in two ways
- Used two cameras
- To capture facial expressions and to capture the baby‟s movements
Slide 10 – Facial Expression Coding
- Oster‟s (2006) Facial Action Coding System (FACS) for babies
- Identifies combination/degree of activity of muscles that underlie particular facial expression.
- Correlational analysis
o Difference in facial expression by condition?
o Recall hypothesis… if we expect early differentiation
o Finding: combinations of muscle activity strongly correlated across the two conditions
Strong correlation between facial expression and muscle movement, proposing
that facial actions are the same between conditions
There was a huge overlap between
o Most common combination in both conditions was: cry, mouth, wrinkled nose
Slide 12 – - These results lead researchers to conclude that fear and anger are not differentially expressed by
11 month olds
- At Least Not in the Face…
- What about non-facial behaviors?
Slide 13 – Body Behaviour Coding
- Non-facial behavior at baseline
- Non-facial behavior in response to elicitor
- Compare body actions at baseline to when an elicitor is present
- e.g., withdrawal, stilling, struggling, hiding face, squirming, etc.
- Present or absent?
Slide 14 –
- Difference in body language by condition? By culture?
- (chart on slide)
o Red = areas of difference
o # of infants who produced key body behaviours = different
o Arm restraining babies – show struggling, moderate withdrawal (pulling away)
o In the gorilla condition – there was increased breathing, stilling behaviours (don‟t move
when the gorilla is shown)
- Any similarities between the two conditions?
o Children turn to mom/attachment figure
o In the anger condition – the hallmark characteristic was struggling
o In the fear condition – the hallmark characteristic was the stilling of the body and
o Hallmark characteristics are evolutionarily significant
Slide 15 – Authors‟ Interpretations
- Differences in body language suggest underlying differences in emotional experience
- Anger and fear are distinctly expressed by 11 month-olds, but only in terms of body language
Slide 16 – Why doesn‟t body language difference translate to the face?
- Authors suggest:
o Facial movements are the result of non-emotional and emotional factors
Face muscles help the child orient and observe the world, but serve an emotional
purpose as well
o Face is orienting and expressing.
o Emotional muscle activity diluted by exaggerated non-emotional muscle activity
Researchers say the muscle movements are exaggerated because 11 month olds
are not good at coordinating their muscles
Slide 17 – Recap: expressing displeasure to your parents
- General negative expression in newborns
- Babies don‟t go into a lot of detail to express displeasure
- As baby matures, emotional expressions must become differentiated
o Newborns grow up and need to communicate things beyond basic needs
- e.g., food preferences emerge
o need to develop various emotional expressions o know they have preferences so they need to have signals to let their caregivers know of
- Underlying this change, a shift in the nature of communication occurs…
o Mom or dad work to figure out what the problem is when the newborn cries
o As the child grows, they become a partner in communicating and they give parents more
cues to work with
- Emotional communication becomes more balanced!
Slide 18 – Attachment in the Parent-Child Relationship
- So, emotions underlie communication
- Emotions allow for communication
- Emotions also the foundation of attachment…
- Goal of attachment: keeping the child alive
- Parents and children share this goal and work together to attain it
- Important to note the difference:
o Attachment + protection
o Affiliation + affection
o Attachment relates to emotions
o Motive to protect
o Feel secure, calm when the attachment figure is present
o Develops early in children
o Love, warmth
o Sadness – key component of affiliation
o Develops early in children
o Develops later in childhood
o Motivation that comes with independence and autonomy in children
o Motivation to assert is linked to whether the power you want is in your hands or has
- You might not want to baby sit him, but you could if you had to
Slide 20 – Child experiences different emotions
Slide 21 – Attachment allows growth of autonomy
- 1. Attachment Encourages curiosity.
o Security allows luxury of exploration.
o Without „safe base‟ child will have to be more cautious – child uses their safe base as a
foundation to explore
o If their attachment figure is not there, they would not explore because there is not a
secure place to withdraw to
- 2. Allows construction of internal model about social interactions
Internal working model of cooperation
o Model of cooperation
o Development of Theory-of-mind, me and y