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Lecture 11

PSYC18 - Lecture 11.docx

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Michelle Hilscher

PSYC18 – Lecture 11 Prof’s Speech - Purple Slide 3 – Emotions and Mental Health in Childhood - Emotional disorders in middle childhood though adolescence: - Externalizing vs. internalizing o Whether the disorder is externalizing (hostility, anger, i.e. conduct disorder, which can hit as early as 6 years old) or internalizing (characterized by anxiety and depression) - Drug abuse and eating disorders in adolescence - Does gender matter in terms of what disorder? o Yes it does o Boys more often exhibit externalizing disorders o Girls more often exhibit internalizing disorders o This pattern continues through adolescence to adulthood Slide 4 – Why the gender difference? - Socialization o Boys and girls are brought up differently; they are taught about emotions differently  E.g. a hockey coach encourages boys to show anger and aggression  Girls are encouraged to hide anger and to instead be needy and sad - Genetics o Difference in genetics can underlie a difference in emotion based disorders Slide 5 – What is disordered? - 4 hypotheses (textbook shows how these work together) - There may an imbalance among emotions o 1 particular emotion/group of emotions that predominate o Someone who is depressed is more likely to feel sad than any other emotion  Sadness is more prominent - Emotional responses are inappropriate o Responses are happening out of context  i.e. crying in a neutral situation o emotional responses should happen but do not - Poor emotion regulation o Hard time managing emotions once they begin o Not able to properly deal with/handle emotion  i.e. a child who receives poor results on a test will feel guilty, but not overwhelmingly  an internalizing disordered child will be stuck with self-doubt and will not know what to do with it, will not be able to focus on the positives of the situation  i.e. an externalizing disordered child who’s cell phone is broken by their best friend, will feel angry and be stuck feeling angry - What appears to be disordered is actually adaptive, albeit to an atypical and challenging context o They have learned to enact an emotional style that helped them cope with the context in the past Slide 6 – Who is at risk of childhood disorder? - The stress-diathesis hypothesis: - An interaction between two things determines whether emotion-based disorder occurs. - Genetic & physiological predisposition - AND - Environmental stressor(s) - E.g. orphaned siblings, brother and sister o Parents died, same genetics, may not both develop emotion based disorder o Who will develop the disorder and who will adapt? o Never absolute – model talks about the probability of the disorder happening - Genetic and physiological o The way that nerves and the endocrine system works may make child vulnerable to disorder - Environment risks: within child, distal (distant/apart from child) Slide 7 – Example of Environmental Risks in Childhood - Risk factor: stressor in environment that increases likelihood that child will develop an emotional disorder, does not guarantee development of disorder - 1. Parental conflict o Externalizing disorders o There is a greater likelihood of developing an externalizing disorder when conflict is seen o No gender differences o Not all types of conflict are damaging o Damaging – verbal, physical conflict o In divorce, divorce is damaging, and can lead to emotional disorders  But recent research says that the conflict before and after the divorce can lead to disorder, not the divorce itself - What type of conflict is worst? o Frequent, severe, overt hostility o Not as damaging: child-rearing conflict; silent tension o Divorce a culprit? - There is experimental evidence that shows that witnessing overt hostility causes aggressive actions Slide 8 – How may witnessing conflict cause aggression? - Three hypotheses: - 1. Modeling - Modelling – children learn how to engage socially by watching their caregivers - 2. Increased arousal - Some children have increased arousal relative to other children - and/or - 3. Biased appraisal - Children may come from homes where there is an unpleasant situation - They can be hypersensitive when arguments are on the rise because they do not want to be involved - They are more likely to think a neutral behaviour means that someone is mad at them - Extremely sensitive to negative emotions Slide 9 – Example of Environmental Risks in Childhood - 2. Parental depression - Internalizing disorders - Depression/anxiety originates from several sources - Defective interaction model learned, e.g. anger - In interactions with mom/dad/sibling, anger is not expressed when someone feels sad - Sadness blocks anger, but anger makes people work together to fix problems - But the child will not show anger because they don’t want it to be directed to them - Puts child at greater risk of developing internalizing disorder - Caregiver’s depression gets in the way of relationship child wants to have with caregiver - 3. Attachment failure - May result from parent’s psychiatric problems - Types of insecure attachment - Ambivalent, avoidant, disorganized - Disorganized – predictive as causal factor for disorder - Disorganized attachment is where the child shows avoidant behaviour and a desire to connect with others, they sometimes act as the caregiver for the parent - Parents are inconsistent, the child develops in an unorganized way - Each predictive of disorder? Slide 10 – Nature and Nurture - Nurture + Nature = Risk + Protective factors + Biological predisposition = Develop emotional disorder? o Disorders can be genetically predisposed o Protective factors can reverse the effects  E.g. relationship with sibling, grandparent, educational achievement, distal factors can protect o Some children are like orchids – in the perfect conditions, they thrive, but for some , when any risk is at all present, they wilt - What is the relative importance of these 3 variables? - Do they each contribute equally? - Is one more important than another? - Let’s explore the interaction in the context of eating disorders. Slide 11 – Eating Disorders and Emotions - EDs characterized as maladaptive forms of coping in response to negative affect - Eating disorders can be emotionally-based - There is often an emotional problem at the core leading to eating problems - Heatherton & Baumeister (1991) - “Escape model” to explain Bulimia nervosa o People feel negative emotion and use binging and purging to distract them - Negative affect at root of bingeing & purging behaviors - Jansch et al. (2009) - Emotion processing deficit and Anorexia nervosa - Impaired judgment of own and others’ emotions - Sometimes people have problems judging how they feel and how others feel - Negative emotions make them engage in fasting so that they feel they have control over their life Slide 12 – Stress-Diathesis Model Applied to Eating Disorders - Nature: biochemical abnormalities, genes o Biochemical abnormalities are often at the base of eating disorders o Genes are at the base of biochemical abnormalities - Nurture: low self-esteem, loneliness, perceived lack of control, physical or sexual abuse, social pressure to be thin, cultural preoccupation with physical appearance o Sociocultural, environmental experiences that you go through put you at risk Slide 13 – Which combinations cause eating disorders? - Are particular combinations more dangerous than others? - Do all combinations lead to eating disorders? And of the same intensity? Slide 14 – Genes… Girls vs. Boys - Eating disorders are not female-only disorders. - Does stress-diathesis model differ by gender? - This brings us to a timely article… - Genetic Risk Factors for Disordered Eating in Adolescent Males and Females - Baker et al. (2009). In Journal of Abnormal Psychology. - What is the etiologic role of genetic and environmental factors on
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