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PSYC18 Chapter 8 Development of Emotions in Childhood.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Gerald Cupchik

PSYC18 Chapter 8 Development of Emotions in Childhood Emotion is the first human language; the first thing we do when we’re born into this world is cry. Maclean (1993) - Vocal sounds during evolution were meaningful; they indicate the start of a new form of adaptation e.g. mammal-like reptiles began to become to become mammals, as social cooperation started to emerge among vertebrates Emotion in the first year of life -Emotional development = social development Kopp and Neufeld (2003) - trace the patterns of research on infant emotions from the 1930s to recent times, as well as include the roles of emotions in social life -it’s important to think of emotions like there is a small set of primary emotions Tomkins (1962) - proposed that each emotion originates as an innate package with its own neural program - emotional then must be physical, visible signs of inner programs -as for child development, even though in the few days after birth, there is little differentiation, the concept is that as our bodies develop and proceeds certain emotions are expressed in ways that others can pick up Babies’ expressions have received much interest of researchers because of its link to work on adult facial expressions Steiner et al. (2001) - demonstrate that human infants’ expressions of sour tastes are similar to those of other primates When babies turn 2 months old, adults are good at picking out expressions of happiness in their faces -there’s two schemes for analyzing babies’ facial expressions: Izard’s MAX ( then later modified as AFFEX) and Oster’s Baby-FACs- an adaptation for infants of Ekman and Friesen’s (1978) coding scheme for adult expressions, FACS -social smiles don’t emerge until after the 1 month or 2, before that babies occasionally give off smiles but they also happen when they are sleeping so it’s not social In the second moth, smiles begin to occur with gentle stroking, by 3 they happen frequently when interacting with a caregiver rd By 3 month of birth, children smile in response to same kinds of events that make older kids and adults happy- attention,
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