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Lecture 9

PSYC18 Lecture 9 + 10.doc

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Gerald Cupchik

Lecture 9 - Reaction Approach: o Peripheral viewpoint: when something has emotional significance, you have a facial and postural response (bodily response)  Create connection between an emotionally significant event and your own autographical/episodic memory - Facial Feedback Hypothesis: “Awareness of one’s own facial expressions is the emotion” Another way to think about emotions: 1. Happiness vs. Sadness and Facial Feedback 2. Fear vs. Anger and Visceral Feedback (gut) 3. Interest vs. Disgust - Emotional experience is shaped by bodily feedback from the face and viscera - A feedback system requires time and so emotional experiences build up over time and have a holistic structure Psychodynamic & the Experience Approach: - OBJECTIVE VS. SUBJECTIVE APPROACHES in psychology: o Positivism goes hand in hand with an OBJECTIVE APPROACH in science  Language = every word has a single meaning specified by an operation or scientific definition  Nomothetic: rule oriented and searches for general laws o Romanticism fits with a SUBJECTIVE APPROACH  Language = found in myths and everyday speech • precise and narrow language CANNOT capture the complexities of psychology and personal life  Ideographic: concerned with individual meanings in life  Approach to life: people live, struggle and experience emotions and tension in their real life • we cannot reduce emotions to a formula • situations take a SYMBOLIC meaning for us o Psychodynamic theorists believe that behaviours in everyday life can refer to many meanings at once  behave in ways that are intentional and purposeful (it might be unconscious) o Goal of psychodynamic viewpoint = to interpret, NOT to predict  Depth :. cannot be scientific because you are always speculating • you accept the legitimacy of emotion :. understanding of life is complex, open meaning  Interpretation = interpreting more complex situations and NOT JUST deciding whether it is good or bad  Self-terminating judgment: we take a brief look at the situation and appraise it quickly  Exhaustive: we look deeper than just "good" or "bad", searching for meaning o Freud: believed in Darwinian view of humans  ultimate source of human meaning lies in biological instincts inherited through the process of natural selection Psychological Viewpoint: 1. Emotion is qualitatively different phenomenon from thought 2. Emotion is motivational in life and is more powerful (motivator) than thought most of the time 3. Emotion, more than thought, refers to some additional invisible unconscious process o Unconscious state + emotions you are not aware of o e.g. memories, thoughts, meaningful life events are not reveal because of too much pain attached to viewing them 4. Emotion expresses those aspects of a person's fundamental nature that are not readily apparent in the conscious mind - Psychodynamic Theory: Every powerful emotional experience you have today, are echoes of those emotions from the past - every emotion is the manifest content of a complicated psychological process which is largely UNCONSCIOUS o Manifest content: what you remember in the morning for your dreams  surface layer. but once you look deeper, it has symbolic cue - unconscious origins of emotions are the latent content o Latent content: what it's really about (the powerful emotions buried in our unconscious that are energized and seeking expression -- :. gains expression through our dreams)  are lingering, unresolved feelings from earlier episodes in the past - The manifest content expresses the latent content in some altered form - Emotions go beyond the immediate situation – People carry around with them latent concerns from situation to situation (symbolic residues) - Emotion is NOT a behaviour which is a function of the environment - Emotion is NOT quite what it appears to be consciously - To understand an emotion, one must seek out the latent content of the emotion and relate it to the fundamental nature of the person o e.g. a person with an emotional style of sadness does not take a lot to make them sad - Freud: worked with the notion of instinct or drive. o instinct = genetically determined and when operative, it produces a state of psychic tension or excitation  prompts a person to act  leads to gratification and the cessation of excitation Homeostatic Model: - Tension  Motor Activity  Cessation of Tension - Human organism is seen as a complex energy system o energy from food for: circulation, respiration, perceiving, thinking and remembering - Energy directed to psychological work was called psychic energy o start with an absolute amount of psychic energy which is given over to different activities - A biological model underlying a psychological model o Biological model of Affect:  Pain and pleasure are the organic analogue of the pleasant and unpleasant things in your mind  The body becomes the paradigm for pain and pleasure - ** The instinct concept links psychology and physiology. o the bodily excitation is called a need o the psychological representation is a wish o e.g. Physiological condition of NUTRITIONAL DEFICIT in the tissues of the body lead to WISHING for food o Affect: is the most general level of bodily response that links the body to the mind Four Characteristics of an Instinct: 1. Source: bodily condition or need 2. Aim: to abolish the deficiency 3. Object: activity involved in satisfying the need 4. Impetus: force of strength determined by the intensity of the underlying need - This is an internal tension reduction homeostatic model - The source and aim are constant throughout life but the object can change - Psychic energy is displaceable from object to object o All adult interests, preferences, tastes, and habits are displacements of energy from original object choices o Displacing things = we have needs but we put them on the shoulders of whatever is available  e.g. when you find yourself in an emotional situation with someone else, YOU may just be a handy alternative to their emotional outlet (displacement) - The LIFE instinct relates to survival and the form of its energy is called LIBIDO o Freud: focused on the sexual aspect of this instinct - The DEATH instinct involves aggressive drives and was described after WWI - unconscious mental events can manifest themselves in behaviour o Freud: Unconscious ideas that are very strong = "inadmissibility to consciousness" o Unconscious ideas which CAN become conscious are called PRECONSCIOUS  denied access are called UNCONSCIOUS - Leibniz: something can be unconscious because you're just not thinking about it o conscious = vivid, something you're thinking about - Repression: Ideas charged with affect are repressed and the idea and affect are separated o The affect: 1. can be inhibited 2. remain in consciousness but attached to another idea 3. can undergo transformation into anxiety o These repressed ideas become organized into and expressed as fantasies Primary Process Thinking: Original/primary way the psychic apparatus functioned - creative thinking is primary process thinking because anything can be put together with anything else - Principles: 1. Exemption from mutual contradiction – absence of any negatives or conditionals so mutually exclusive ideas can coexist 2. Thinking by allusion or analogy is frequent and part of an object, memory or idea may stand for the whole or vice-versa  Something is LIKE something else  E.g. dream about something in the future, that has already happened in the past (we are not bound by the rules of sequentially and linearity) 3. No sense of time…no "before" or "after" 4. In terms of drive energy, there is a tendency towards: i. immediate gratification ii. Shifting cathexis (i.e. attachment) from the original or method of discharge when blocked to another route • E.g. Sublimation: social unacceptable impulses are consciously transformed into socially acceptable behaviour - Two features of primary process thinking that are relevant for dream construction and symbols 1. Displacement: representation of part by a whole or in the general substitution of one idea by another which is associatively connected to it  you have the same feeling, but instead of having it attached to one stimulus, you have it attached to other objects as well 2. Condensation: representation of several ideas or images by a single word or image  one picture says a thousand words • we do not have one to one meanings Secondary Process Thinking: Ordinary conscious thinking that is primarily verbal, following the usual laws of syntax and logic - THE ID: personal drives that appear from birth o instinctual gratification that operates to the pleasure principle (achieve pleasure and avoid pain) o Reflex Action: energy is automatically discharged in motion action (eating, drinking, orgasm etc.)  Affect most closely tied to the body o Wishful fulfilment: energy is used to produce an image of the instinctual object. It does not distinguish between subjective imagery and objective reality. The image is a memory of past gratification  fantasies help expend instinctual energy to eliminated needs (tension reduction process) - THE EGO: has no energy of its own but acquires neutralized drive energy from the ID o Secondary process; executive functioning that mediates between your needs and the environment operates according to the reality principle which is the ability to distinguish between stimuli of the outer world and ID impulses of the inner world o EGO functions: motor control, sensory perception, library of memories, thinking and attention, and defensive functions like repression - THE SUPEREGO: two parts  1) the CONSCIENCE, 2) the EGO IDEAL o There is a change from external to internal source of moral demands and self regulations o shaped by identification with family and others SUMMARY: - All behaviour has both id and ego - energy & direction - Dreams and emotions are relatively unbound and work more according to instinctual processes o emotions not constrained by the rules of logic o However, the context of emotions is more varied than the content of instincts.  Instincts are more formally defined (thus more restricted to animals) o Energy becomes attached to memory images but we cannot readily access these early memories (e.g. dreams are the manifest content of the latent content) o The latent content of our memory images can only be expressed by associations that these images arouse o While emotional experience is often situationally and perceptually cued, its meaning comes from individual interpretations of and reactions to the situation itself. But the energy comes from early memories. o All emotions are alike in terms of energy. Lecture 10: Three Groups of Emotions: 1. Relational emotions point to something outside the self (e.g. Love and hate) - Theory of Ambivalence: virtually every relationship will have been accompanied by both pain and pleasure o Emotions are COMPLIMENTARY: emotions that seem opposite are actually very similar o Positive and negative emotions go hand in hand  Hatred is the deepest possible disappointment, Love is the strongest possible attachment  ** There is no attachment without the FEAR OF LOSS (ambivalence of emotions) o family plays a crucial role  the kinds of emotions that become differentiated depend on the dynamics of the family - Ex. of emotions: o Clinging dependency (check in for fear of losing them), affection, longing, fondness vs. temporary resentment, anger, long term hostility  Affection can develop in response to affection  Longing can develop in response to indifference o **Never underestimated the extend to which people are indifferent to your life  exaggeration of your emotions influence how you perceive how interested others are  the more you think it is important, the less the person care
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