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University of Toronto Scarborough
G Cupchik

Emotions ch1IntroThe Wests most prominent early theorists of emotions the Epicureans and the Stoics thought that emotions are irrational and damaging emotions serve important functions especially in our social livesNineteenth century founders page 28 for summary tableCharles Darwin the evolutionary approach God had given humans special facial muscles that allowed them to express uniquely human sentiments unknown to animals we ourselves are animals allowed to realize the importance of cross cultural studies and he was one of the first to use questionnaires questions to guide emotions how are emotions expressed in humans and other animals and where do our emotions come from he conclude that emotional expressions derived largely from habits that in our evolutionary or individual past had once been useful emotional expressions showed continuity of adult human behavioral mechanisms with those of lower animals and with those of infancy darwin traced other expression to infancy such as crying and patterns of adults affection have an influence when we are young on emotions in the future our emotions link us to our past the past of our species and to our own infancy emotions serve as the first means of communication between mother and her infantWilliam James the bodily approach he said when we perceive the object of fear such as a bear then the emotion is the perception of changes of our body as we react to that fact his theory Is really about the nature of emotional experience the core of an emotion is the pattern of bodily responses our experience of many emotions is the set of changes of the autonomic nervous system what are the distinct physiological reactions associated with the different emotions emotions give color and warmth to experienceSigmund Freud the psychoanalytic approach certain events usually of a sexual kind can be so damaging that they leave psychological scars that can affect the rest of our lives emotions are the core of many pathologies freuds work prompter john bowlbys theory of attachmentPhilosophical and literary approaches
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