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PSYC18 chpts 1-6

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Gerald Cupchik

PSYC18Chapter 2 Notes 1 Chapter 2: Evolution of Emotions A piece of Darwins evidence was the similarly of human emotional expressions to those of lower animals o Argued that human emotional expressions have some primitive aspects o Darwins theory of evolution Elements of an evolutionary approach to emotions 3 parts that drives evolution o Superabundance: Animals and plants produce more offspring than necessary merely to reproduce themselves o Variation: Each off spring is somewhat different than others , and differences are passed on by heredity o Natural selection: Characteristics that allow the individual to be adapted to the environment are selected for Selection pressures At the core of natural selection The physical and social environment in which humans evolved, determined whether or not individuals survived and reproduced. To survive the individual need to find food and water. Our thermoregulation system, our fight and flight response etc. developed from selection pressures. Darwin did not acknowledge hereditary elements. o Now we know genes are passed on from one generation to another Two kinds of sexual selection pressure determines who reproduces: o Intrasexual Competition: Occurs within a sex access to mates. Usually most pronounced among males. Stags lock horns and engage in ritualized, at times violent battles to find out who is dominant and gains access to mates. He status dynamics of young men the banter, teasing, playful wrestling and tests of strength- serve a similar function To determine who rises in status and who will have more access to young women. o Intersexual Competition: The process by which one sex selects specific kinds of traits in the other sex. Women choose men with higher status. Social status affects the amount of resources one has and more resources will benefit future offspring. Males seek out mates who are fertile and show for youth and beauty full lips, youthful skin, an hourglass figure etcare physical signs of optimal reproductive age. Our capacity to cooperate Is a powerful determinant of who reproduces and who survives Adaptation Are genetically based traits that allow the organism to respond well to specific selection pressures and to survive and reproduce. o Examples: table 2.1, page 36 o Our distaste for bitter foods helps us avoid these toxins o Women are particularly sensitive to bitter tastes and smells during their first trimester of pregnancy morning sickness may be a part of a mechanism to avoid intake of certain toxins that may harm the fetus. Humans look for mates that show signs of fertility and reproductive readiness.
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