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PSYC18H3 (334)
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Chapter 14(1).docx

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Chapter 14Psychotherapy Consciousness and WellBeing Psychological Therapies and EmotionsHuman consciousness has struggled to find right relation with emotionsIn East emotional life thought be best modulated by meditation and attitudes like nonattachment to worldly things o Mindfulness meditation found to have effects on brain similar to positive emotions shifting activation to left hemisphereIn West transformation of self was of interest to classical Greeks and to Hebrewsthought to derive from ancient Egyptians o Incorporated into Christianity and became driving force in Renaissanceo One versionat core of everyone is piece of divine substance soul that was detached from God and contained inside a human body Task on earth is to see through veils of bodily existence and undertake spiritual journeyRoman Catholic confession was made before group of neighbours and by medieval times performed with priest It has 7 components o First comes confession not just of general sinfulness but specific sin o Second must come emotion of shame and remorse for sin o Third needs to be restitution for wrong o Forth part was anticipatedamendment of lifeIn many societies comparable practices exist that may be classed broadly as psychotherapeutic In all different tributaries of stream at center of process of change are emotions o In westfrom direction of psychoanalytic therapy which both stands in long line of therapies from different cultures and has been origin of most modern Western approaches to psychotherapy Therapist tries to work with client to make sense of emotionbased symptoms and in contrast to medical approach of trying directly to relieve suffering and anguish of symptoms Basic Idea of Psychoanalytic TherapyFreuds first form of psychotherapy focused on emotionally traumatic events in patients earlier life o Therapy aimed at recalling trauma enabling it to become conscious allowing emotions associated with it to be experienced and expressedand thus freeing patient from traumas harmful effects tho Center of new idea formed in final few years of 19 century was neurotic people suffer from inner conflictPsychoanalysis attracted both adherents and detractors o Detractors argued that psychoanalysis was less therapeutic procedure o Psychoanalytic therapy continues to flourish and become part of Western culture o Crews and Grunbaum are against it o Freuds reputation questioned in controversies surrounding cases where people reported having recovered memories of childhood sexualemotional traumas and abuse that were repressedFreud proposed therapy of listening carefully with respect and with evenly hovering attention to parents who suffered from emotional disordersTherapys Focus on Emotions1986Kazdin counted 400 variants most of which were eclecticincorporated selected aspects from different variants into practicemost therapies involve close relationship with therapist talk and suggestion and nearly all involve emotions in moreorless explicit waytherapy is interaction with another person in which one can discover some properties of emotion schemastypically anxiety anger and despairTherapy provides context of relationship in which one experiences emotion schemas understands them better take responsibility for them and modify aspects of behaviour accordingly Psychoanalysis Unconscious Schemas of RelatingDistinctive feature of psychoanalytic therapy is recognition of transference of client to therapist
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