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Chapter 9 Notes.doc

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PSYC18 Chapter 9 – Emotions in Social Relationships Social goals and social emotions - Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, notion that humans are a mixture of good and evil - Greek philosopher Empedocles sees it as love and strife, Freud sees it as sexality and death, more recently, theorists see it as cooperation, affiliation and social behaviour. - Historical Figure: Konrad Lorenz: argued that aggression is an innate drive like humnger - Three kinds of social motivation: attachment, affiliation and assertion o Attachment: function is primarily that of protection and care for the immature infant o Affiliation: described in research literature as warmth (coloq. Affection), draws individuals together even when they are not genetically related (core of kindness, friendship and long term sexual bonding we call love) o Assertion: Power, we human beings create hierarchies in many of the things we do, assertion is the motivation to rise in the social hierarchy and to resist challenges from those who would diminish us. Motivation of competition and conflict. o Typical positive emotions associated with attachment figure are trust, comfort and reassurance while loss of such a figure produces anxiety and distress o Typical positive emotiosns associated with affiliation are affection, warmth and liking whereas loss of someone will produce sadness and grieving o Typical emotion of assertion is anger, to win or maintain status, loss of status is accompanied by shame or embarassment and other emotions of deference - Attachment and its separation from affiliation o Attachment function is essentially protective. System keeps mother close by or ready to be summoned by crying, using mother as secure base o Ainsworth observed mothers interacting with their babies. Hypothesized that infants developed their sense of trust from parents being sensitive and responsive. o Grossmann (1985) and Atkinson (2005) have found that there is a dissociation between maternal sensitivity and attachment security o Goldberg et al. (1999) conclude that there is a system of affiliation, warmth and affection including sensitivity. Affiliation and warmth are fundamentally important but they involve different processes than of protection o Human caregivers in some societies can be strong in attachment although not particularly warm to their infants o The system of affiliation and warmth is built on positive reward and is closely associated with the system of touch - Emotions as social o 1) Just as with individual goals, emotions are evaluations or appraisals of events that affect different kinds of social goals (anxious if attachment figure is inexplicably absent, happy to see a friend, angry when status is threatened o 2) Parkinson and Parkinson (2004): Emotions are not solely determined by appraisals of events. Emotions are reappraised so that emotions become amalgams of what started them and the social negotiations they have occasioned o 3) Emotions create social relationships (smile is invitation to cooperative relationship; angry expression is a declaration of conflict). Such emotions are not just states of readiness but commitments to the relationship (for the time being) o The three kinds of social motivation (attachment, affiliation and assertion) is that they do not just coexist, in human society, they need to be actively combined PSYC18 Chapter 9 – Emotions in Social Relationships Emotions within intimate relationships - Early attachment as a template for later love o Bowlby (1971) states that affectional love is when two people cooperate to accomplish together what they could not do alone o Bowlby suggests that attachment relationship of infancy creates a template for later intimate relationships (first mentions were from Darwin and Freud) - Maternal caregiving and affiliative warmth o Principal researcher in the area of maternal caregiving is Alison Fleming (2002)  Mother rats show three distinctive kinds of maternal behavior toward infants • A) when infant rats suckle, mothers assume crouching posture over them(Enabling infants to suck is a characteristic of all mammals) • B) If infants get out of the nest, they make ultrasonic squeaks and retrieve them (Retrieving is also a typical species-characteristic pattern • C) Mothers lick their infants, particularly on and around the ano- genital region (being stimulated in a tactile way is essential for health and proper development, switching on various neural and hormonal systems  Fleming’s group has shown that mothers who received more affection when they were infants spend more time cuddling and kissing their babies  Mother and father will sustain their child through life-upheavals that child rearing demands, developing what Winnicott (1958) called “primary maternal preoccupation)  Klaus and Kennell (1976) describe a process of the mother becoming bonded to her baby by bodily contact during the first days after delivery  Caregiving is an amalgam of elements, with a wide range of processes - Affiliation and sexual relating o Sexual love in humans is elaborate o In evolutionary terms, it is likely that the elaboration started with the joining of the affiliative-warmth system to the reproductive one, known as the male provisioning hypothesis (Lovejoy, 1981) o Lovejoy argues that the critical evolutionary moves occur when humans start walking upright, when infants could no longer cling to their mothers, so that mothers must devote more resources to tending them. o There came also the pair bonding, which is rare elsewhere in the primate world. Males have a good chance of knowing that the child to whose upbringing he contributes bears his genes. In return for her exclusive sexual attention, the female acquires from the male additional resources to contribute to child rearing. This has led women to choose males on the basis of their predicted investment in parenting rather than from indcators of genetic prowess. - Principles of sexual love o Human experiences of loving and of being loed are thought by many to be what give life its principal meaning and are much celebrated in fictional literature o For most people in the Western society (Freedman 1978) found that many Americans responded that love in marriage would be most closely related to happiness PSYC18 Chapter 9 – Emotions in Social Relationships o Goodall (1986) found that infant chimpanzee who lost its mother at the age of 6, though able to forage for itself, would pine and die o Taboos against incest and social processes of exogamy that promote mating between unrelated adults are human universals o E.g. Children raised in kibbutzim tend not to enter into sexual relationships with those whom they grew up with in the same kibbutz o Bateson (1983): we tend to choose as a mate someone similar to people we know but not too similar! o How do we make transition from urgent infatuation (passionate love coined by Hatfield and Rapson (2002)) to the state of permanent loving and caring for the other (Djikic & Oatley, 2004)? o Jung (1925) writes about psychological repercussions of withdrawing the fantasies on which being in love is based - Anger and contempt in marriage o Issues: unsatisfying sex, husband’s inabil
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