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PSYC18 C9.docx

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PSYC18 Psychology of Emotion Chapter 9 – Emotions in Social Relationships Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde – human beings are mixtures of good and evil. What sets primates apart from other species is the capacity for kindness. Lorenz – aggression is an innate drive like hunger Three kinds of Social Motivation: Attachment, Affiliation, and, Assertion Attachment – protection & care for immature infant; cooperation allows infant to thrive in environment  Positive emotions associated with presence of attachment figure  trust, comfort, & reassurance.  Loss of such figure  anxiety & stress. Affiliation – also called Affection; draws individuals together even when not genetically related  Core for kindness, friendship & romantic love.  Positive emotions associated with presence of affection figure  affection, warmth, & liking  Loss of such figure  sadness, & grieving. Assertion – also called Power; motivation to rise in social hierarchy and resist challenges from those who would diminish us.  Motivation of conflict and competition.  Anger to win/maintain status & Shame/Embarrassment for deference. Attachment & Affiliation are cooperative, while Assertion is competitive. Attachment – Its function is essentially protective  E.g. mother provides protection & safe-base for exploration. Some studies indicate that infants develop sense of trust from parents being sensitive and responsive, whereas others indicate it is not so robust. Affiliation – equally as important; involve different processes than protection  Affectional bonds based on warmth – only some species of primates. - Hugging, kissing, grooming, etc. Built on positive reward & associated with system of touch.  American mothers are warmer (more hugging & kissing), but less responsive than Ugandan mothers. These separate systems of attachment & affiliation can be differential prioritized in different cultures. People express more emotions in communal relationships vs. exchange relationships. Emotions as Social 1) Emotions are evaluations/appraisals of events that affect different kinds of social goals. 2) Emotions are not solely determined by appraisal of events – they may be reappraised 3) Emotions create Social Relationships – e.g. smile can be invitation to cooperative relationship - They are commitments – committing time to relationship that emotion sets frame to. - They can signal our goals – allowing others to respond. Emotions within Intimate Relationships Affectional Bond – two people cooperate to accomplish together what they could not do alone.  Bowlby - Attachment relationship of infancy creates a template for later intimate relationships.  Shaver – Adult love depends on 3 systems; 1. Attachments 2. Caregiving of infants by parents 3. Sexual relating of reproduction Maternal Caregiving & Affiliative Warmth Rats  maternal behaviour includes a) Crouching when infants suckle – characteristic of all mammals. b) Ultrasonic squeaks & retrieval of infant when it leaves nest (depends on NA) – equivalent to attachment function of mother’s responding to human babies (e.g. picking up when crying) c) Licking – equivalent to hugging/kissing, etc in humans. Dependent on mother herself having experienced bodily contact when she was an infant. o Women with little tending by mother, become instrumental in caregiving behaviours o Women with more tending by mother, become affectionate in caregiving behaviours Parents develop primary maternal preoccupation – sustains need for baby to flourish. Early contact may help mother and father become bonded to infant – early sensory cues. Affiliation and Sexual Relating Male Provisioning Hypothesis – the joining of the affiliative-warmth system and the reproductive on. Pair Bonding – rare in primates; male has chance in knowing child he contributes to.  Female acquires resources from male to contribute to child rearing – select males based on predicted investment in parenting rather than indicators of genetic prowess. The demands of raising offspring requires more cooperation with kin as well as non-kin. Principles of Sexual Love  Western Society  love is what is most important in life.  Chimpanzee at age of 6 would pine and die if it had lost its mother.  Our parents are not just caregivers, they are part of our life story.  The taboos against incest and the social process of exogamy that promote mating between unrelated adults are human universals.  Part of self lost when special person becomes ill, dies, or turns out differently Several forms of love help with transitions: loved that is centered upon caregiving, affection, friendship, and eroticism.  People often nominate love as a prototypical emotion, and sexual desire to only overlap modestly.  Only romantic/sexual love is associated with the release of oxytocin which promotes devotion/monogamy. Anger and Contempt in Marriage In Marital Dissatisfaction, the social motivations of assertion enter intimate relationships. Four Horseman (negative behaviours – toxic manoeuvres) of the Apocalypse (most damaging to relationships). 1) Criticism – more critical means less satisfying marriage. It is the attempt to reduce the other in one’s own eyes and in that person’s eye too. 2) Defensiveness 3) Stonewalling – resisting dealing with problems Both 2) & 3) block the commitment to carry the matter through until problem is resolved. 4) Contempt – most toxic to relationships; denial of other person’s right to take part in the relationship at all. Anger (while being distressing in the moment) can bring about beneficial change.  May have quality of the speech act of promising – anger involves commitment into seeing argument go through to some end – functions in long term relationship to allow readjustment for something after a sense of being wronged  i.e. resolution. All social emotions have an element of commitment. Anger is a bid to increase one’s individual status or maintain it. In Western society, shame is hypocognized because it is too shameful to take about. Friendship and Gratitude Friendships  people can learn their generation’s morals and sort out difficulty of family/romantic life.  Evolutionarily, provide conundrum; requires cooperation with non-kin. - Cooperative alliances are successful in more immediate lives to extent where there is reciprocal giving and affection.  Communicative Gene Hypothesis – genes survive through generations only in the context of other genes – gene lines can survive due to communication with genes in other organisms of
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