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University of Toronto Scarborough
G Cupchik

PSYC18 Psychology of Emotions Lecture 5, February 9/2012 1) Exam covers everything up until and including lecture 6 The conflict between emphasis on rationality vs. emphasis on emotionality. But how do these work together (i.e. body and mind?) 2) Individuals – meant white men, people of aristocracy (i.e. secular vs. religious). Calculating manner  very rational and planned. Hot passions vs. cool desires. Cool desires are related to needs, concerns. Attend to your feelings, (you do something, what’s the implication on your feelings?) 3) The Columns are very important – many M/C questions will come from it. The shift from religious view to the secular view – John Lock was one of first to talk about self, the agent that does all of these things. Action Theory – change emotion into feeling; holds that people are agents who deliberate regarding potential outcomes of actions which are performed for reasons. - People have goals, needs, and concerns which prompt them to initiate action. - Emotions then arises when process is either completed or interrupted by their actions 4) Change emotion into feeling. Yerkes-Dodson Law Performance is not good in: - Low Arousal condition because not enough E to concentrate, or... - High Arousal because you have too much arousal to concentrate. Performance is optimal in: - Moderate Arousal 5) People who are in the action section tend to emphasize that the role of the brain in emotion/affective processes. Central Cortical (vs. Peripheral Visceral) – If you are high in visceral expression (high reactivity), you are not showing it with emotions (may develop ulcers e.g.). Facilitative effects of Emotion (under Yerkes-Dodson Law)  provides the facilitative push on direction, execution, or adaptive behaviour that is needed to perform optimally. 6) This action model has friends in world of behaviourism and cognitivism. Watson is the founder of Modern Behaviourism. He is in the action school, and sees emotion as wired in and help us adapt to the world around us. Behaviourists are under action school because they believe we have things wired in us. - Emotions exist because they have evolutionary value - Can be dysfunctional when emotion arousal is too high. 7) Beginning 1900, psychology and physiology joined together to explain emotions. Instinct – more closely tied to animal, a wired-in response. McDougall is saying emotions help us adapt because when we have the emotion, in turns on instinct to feel fear and get out of bad situation to stay alive, or be angry to fight and stay alive  in this way, emotions have adaptive value. 8) McDougall is dealing more and more with the body and the brain – the body is important because it helps us survive, and emotions help us survive because we feel them, and know the necessary response to get out and survive. - Cannon extended McDougall’s approach more to an emergency response theory – emotional excitement creates bodily preparations for supreme effort in fight or flight. 9) Maranon is considered in the golden generation 1898. - He was one of the founders of research in endocrinology. He gave injections to study arousal. They were just beginning to understand glands during that time. Maranon was the first guy to give injections for arousal, and analyze what happens. - He looked at the implications of the affective processes of arousal. 10) Maranon: 79% of patients  report that they just had somatic experience (tremoring/vibrating) after injections of EPI leading to unidentifiable sensation – i.e. subjective perception 11) 21% of patients  had involuntary emotions along with the same somatic experience/symptoms; As if the body found something to be emotional about – i.e. second degree reaction. - Emotional Flux: an emotional experience, the mental correlate of it. Body reactions occur in viscera (sweating, vibrating, etc.). You can look at yourself, and just say you are vibrating (i.e. 79% of patients in study). - 21% of the people had a story to go with the vibration however (e.g. worried about dad that was sick), and so vibration slipped into topic of emotion, and therefore they never felt the vibration; rather they felt the emotion. - The body fit with something that they were worried about. The body and mind worked together to create an emotional state (somatic experience + cognition about something) o Body and mind interaction with each other. - Body is artificially changed by injection (above threshold, so noticeable). - Women are much more sensitive to body sensations. 12) Psychological motif – Accompanies an Emotional State to justify the feeling  coming into lab with certain si
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