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PSYC21H3 (62)
Lecture 3

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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Haley

Minilab - Romantic attachment * - Bullying/aggression * - Self-regulation - Abusive parenting * - Conflict - Family influences - Psychopathology Hypothesis  Background  Facts  Findings  Question  What remains to be answered  Prediction  Given what is known then what can be expected or what might be the case Methods  Participants  Design  Measures Online submission Lecture 3: Biological foundations 25/09/12 Aspects of biology that underlie social behaviour - Hormones – oxytocin: regulates stress and facilitates social bonding, cortisol - Brainwaves – EEG (small fluctuations in electrical activity generated by pops of neurons in the brain); fMRI (measures changes in blood flow) - DNA – behaviour of genetics (twin studies); molecular genetics - Physical appearance - Reflexes and unconditioned responses Biological foundations of social interaction - Biological preparedness for social interaction  babies come out rearing for social interactions - Neurological foundations: brain development/function to social behaviour - Genetics - Difference in temperament: how temperament interacts with your environment Biological preparedness for social interaction - From biological rhythms (e.g. sleep wake cycle) to social rhythms  Acquisition of biological regulatory skills  interactional synchrony  Development of biological rhythms that help babies deal with the time-based nature of social interaction - Visual preparation for social interaction  Babies attracted to visual social stimuli  Faces, especially eyes  will increasingly look more and more at the eyes and mouth and become very absorbed in those micro exchanges - Auditory preparedness for social interaction  Well developed babies before birth  Study: Cat in the Hat  Prefer high pitch and exaggerated  Contours  Adults speak in shorter sentences and more slowly – baby talk  Become attuned to native language by 9 months - Smell, taste, touch  Newborns can discriminate among different odours and tastes and prefer those that adults find pleasant  Prefer mother’s smell  Facilitates development of relationship  Sense of touch develops early  Touch has soothing effect  Deprivation of touch  Lack of touch has negative effects on normal development - Beyond faces and voices: primed to be a social partner  Infant prefer face-to-face play to other activities  Capable of regulating interactions with gaze  If too stimulating, infants turn away, cry or distract themselves  Some infant-parent dyads have difficulty  Cocaine exposed infants (cant self-regulate very well), depressed mother (infants cant regulate very wel and social interactions don’t happen)  Infants have primitive ways of monitoring the interaction  Non-social exchanges that contributed to social synchrony Dyadic regulation - Other directed regulatory behaviour  The caretaker reads the infant’s affective displays and use the info to facilitate the infants goal-directed activities. The caretaker helps change the infants emotional state - Self-directed regulatory behaviour  A coping behaviour used by infan
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