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Lecture 5

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David Haley

Lecture 5 09/10/12 Emotions: Thoughts about feelings - Attachment conceptualized as how we regulate our emotions - What aspects of emotion are important for social development  Expression  Understanding  Regulation - How we learn to express, understand and regulate emotions  Relationships Perspectives on emotional development - Biological  Emotional expressions are innate and universal, rooted in human evolution and based on anatomical structures  For survival  Face gets a lot of attention because you can differentiate emotions depending on the muscles on the face that are activated  Because everybody recognizes those facial expressions everyone knows what you are talking about  universal - Learning  Useful for explaining individual differences in emotional expression  Variations seen in the way ppl express their emotions  Parents behaviours reinforce how often an infant will show or express these emotions – e.g. parenting style that will show how often a child will be happy etc - Functional  Purpose of emotions is to help ppl achieve their social and survival goals  Emotions have signals which makes the functional  Each emotion provides motivation  Allows to signal to the environment What are emotions? - Primary emotions: emerge early in life and do not require introspection or self- reflection (fear, joy, disgust, surprise, sadness and interest) - Secondary emotions: emerge in second year of life and depend on a sense of self and the awareness of other ppls reactions (jealousy, guilt, shame, pride, embarrassment, empathy) Development of emotions - Use of coding systems to discern emotional expressions in infancy  Maximally Discriminative Facial Movement (Max) - Primary emotions  Joy  Newborns display reflex smiles – spontaneous  Development differences o Newborns display reflex smiles – spontaneous o Between 3-6 weeks, infant smiles in response to external stimuli o By 2-6 months infant displays social smile – an upturned mouth in response to a human face or voice o Duchenne smile: a smile of genuine pleasure shown in crinkles around the eyes as well as an upturned mouth – reserved for caregivers o Greater activation of the left side of the brain with Duchenne smile rather than with the social smile  Fear  2 phases in the emergence of fear: 1. From 3-7 months of age, infants develop wariness, which they exhibit when they encounter events they do not understand 2. From 7-9 months of age, infants begin to show genuine fear o Stranger distress or fear of strangers: a negative emotional reaction to unfamiliar ppl which typically emerges in infants around the age of 9 months  Universal fears – separation anxiety: fear of being apart from a familiar caregiver which typically peaks at about 15 months  Baby’s reaction may depend on how mother reacts to the situation  Social referencing: the process of reading emotional clues in others to help determine how to act in an uncertain situation o Younger infants are likely to act first and look later o Older infants are more likely to check with the mother before they act o Developmentally change in how they turn to other ppl for guidance in what to do  Fear of heights- visual cliff o By the time infants are 6 months, infants think there is a chance they will fall and it is at this moment of uncertainty where they stop and look at the mother for a signal to act accordingly Development of emotions - Secondary emndions  In the 2 year of life secondary emotions- pride, shame, jealousy, guilt, and empathy – emerge  These social r self-conscious emotions depend on children’s abilities to be aware of, talk about, and think about themselves in relation to others  Possibility that it is in your head, something that you reflect on and think of and an inclusion of a judgement helping to create a distinction – not fully hardwired  Secondary emotions arise when the relationship fails to valid
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