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PSYC21H3 (62)
Lecture 8

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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Haley

Lecture 8: Peers and differences 06/11/12 Goethe’s metamorphosis of plants and animals - Expansion  Novelty seeking  Recognizing and identifying with others  Understanding others - Contraction  Routines, stories, rituals  Stabilization of identity - Challenges  Threats to self - Processes of expansion and contraction happening every second to form that connection to the neighbouring synapse Hegel’s Lord and Bondsman - Consciousness depends on a struggle for recognition from others  Moments of others recognizing you as an object  Moments of mutual recognition (joining others and identification) - This psychological struggle may involve  Domination of one person over another may then lead to a desire for destruction  An inability to recognize others or aspects of ppl that do not conform to our own identity Definitions and distinctions - Peers vs friend  Peer: another child of roughly the same age  Short interactions, minimal commitment  Friend: a peer with whom the child has a special relationship  Regular, sustained interaction, reciprocal How do peer relationships differ from those with adults? - Briefer, freer, more equal - More likely to involve shared positive emotions and conflicts - Offer opportunities for new types of interpersonal exploration - Offer children a cultural community of their own Developmental patterns of interaction - How early does this begin? - First encounters in infancy  In the first 6 months of life, babies touch and look at each other and are responsive to each other’s behaviour  But not until the second half of the first year that infants begin to recognize a peer as a social partner  Have to have some selectivity, recognize someone in a crowd and choose them to interact and play with – not random Origins of social exclusion: shunning - Peer study  60 infants + longitudinal design - Question  Do infants form preferences for a particular peer over another?  What ate the behaviours of the excluded infants? - Dyadic preferences determine within triad grp based on frequency of  Mutual gazes  Mutual positive affect  Initiations  Positive responses to initiations  Time spent in play between two infants - Dyads who had the highest average scores across the three time points were classified as preferred dyad - Results  At all ages infants showed stable peer preferences  Emotional responses among excluded and included infants  7 months: no differences  9-12 months o More positive affect o Initiated more and responded to more interactions o More play - Conclusions: infants are selective with respect to whom they interact with, and are sensitive to being shunned by others as indicated by their passivity and low positive affect Defining sex and gender - Gender typing: process by which children acquire the values, motives and behaviours considered appropriate for their gender in their particular culture - Gender-based belief: an idea that differentiates males and females - Gender identity: perception of oneself as either male or female - Gender-role preferences: desire to possess certain gender-types characteristics - Gender stability: fact that males remain male and female remain female - Gender constancy: awareness that superficial alterations in appearance or activity do not alter gender - Gender stereotype: Belief that members of a culture hold about acceptable and appropriate attitudes, interests activities, psychological traits, social relationships, occupations, and physical appearance for males and females - Gender role: composite of the behaviours actually exhibited by a typical male or female in a given culture; the reflection of a gender stereotype in everyday life Gender differences in behaviour, interests and activities - On average all the differences between males and females there is a majority of overlap  grp differences are of 1 SD of the mean Biological factors in gender differences - To be able to pass genes from one generation to the next, individuals need to have mating strategies that enhance their reproductive success  Males: aggressive and competitive skills  Females: strategies for attracting and keeping mates who are able to provide resources and protection for
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