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PSYC21 - Lecture 2.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Carly Prusky

PSYC21 – Lecture 1 Prof’s Speech - Purple Slide 2 – What is the study of social development? - Description of children’s o Social behaviour and how it changes over time o Knowledge of themselves and others o Ideas about relationships with peers and adults  Peers are others who are in the same age group as the child  Adults include teachers, religious leaders, etc. o Emotional expressions and displays  moods o Ability to function in social groups - And examination of how other aspects of development underlie children’s social behaviour o Examination of different things that could be influencing development - Individual differences, changes that occur with age (maturation), and the explanation of these changes - This course will focus on child-adolescent social development Slide 3 – Bet you didn’t know that… - Newborns can recognize their own mothers by smell - Even 2 year olds experience jealousy - Aggressive behaviour in an 8 year old can predict criminal behaviour at age 30 - Infants in orphanages show lower levels of the “love” hormone - Child abuse can lead to changes in children’s brain functioning - Having a close friend can make up for being rejected by classmates - A conflicted relationship between mother and daughter can speed up the onset of puberty Slide 4,5 - Biology also affects these relationships - Relationships with other play a regulatory function in our lives - We are hardwired to want to be around others – we like the company of others - Early experiences may be more important that later experiences – but later experiences can also enhance or interrupt behaviour - Nomophobia – fear of being separated from cell phone o Related to need for contact with others Slide 6 – Questions to consider in social development - 1. How do biological and environmental influences interact and affect social development? o Role of nature, nurture, biology, maturation - 2. What role do children play in their own development? o Are they passive? Do they just let things happen? o Are they active? Do they explore and discover? o Their role is ongoing, there are interchanges between the child and parent – the relationship between them is always changing - 3. What is the appropriate unit for studying social development? o Should we study the individual only? Interactions by oneself? In a dyadic setting? Social triads? Generational gaps? Peer groups? Siblings? o Different people bring out different things in a child (e.g. may be shy around a parent or a stranger) - 4. Is development continuous or discontinuous? o (slide 7 graphs) o A – development as a smooth continuous line o B – development as a staircase o C – development as learning one strategy, then another, and then another, where the strategies overlap Slide 8 – Questions to consider in social development - 5. Is social behaviour the result of the situation or the child? o Children behave differently in different situations o Children act differently when parents are present - 6. Is social development universal across cultures? o There are cultural differences o Cultures provide a backbone to how the child will interact - 7. How does social development vary across history? o Related to the structures of families and how families change o Models of communication also change (i.e. technology) o Significant events also shape social development (e.g. wars, economic boom/bust, natural disasters) Slide 10 – Questions to consider in social development - 8. Is social development related to other domains? o Yes o Related to emotional, cognitive, motor development - 9. How important are mothers? o Mothers are often seen as key players in development o Infants are attracted to her, but mothers are not the only key person - 10. Is there a single pathway of social development? o Multifinality – divergence of developmental paths – where 2 similar individuals start off on similar paths, but end up with different results o Equifinality – children following different paths, end up on a similar path/reach a similar end point Slide 12 - Social development started with Darwin - Theories develop a coherent account of
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