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Lecture 5

PSYC21 - Lecture 5.docx

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Carly Prusky

PSYC21 – Lecture 5 Prof’s Speech - Purple Slide 2 – What are emotions? - Subjective reaction to something in the environment - Generally accomplished by some form of physiological arousal - Often communicated to others by some expression or action o e.g. crying - Usually experienced as either pleasant or unpleasant - Children express a wide range of emotions from infancy - They are able to communicate their needs and desires Slide 3 – Biological Perspective - Emotional expressions are innate and universal, rooted in human evolution, and based on anatomical structures o Facial expressions of basic emotions are the same in different cultures o All infants began to smile at 46 weeks  Regardless of how long the child has been exposed to smiling faces o The left cerebral hemisphere controls the expression of the emotion of joy; the right hemisphere, the expression of fear o Identical twins are more similar than fraternal twins in the age at which they first smile, the amount they smile, the onset of their fear reactions to strangers, and their general degree of emotional inhibition  i.e. more linked to genetics than the environment Slide 4 - Learning Perspective - Emotions are useful for explaining individual differences in emotional expression o When adults respond to a baby’s smiles with positive stimulation, the baby’s rate of smiling increases o Children may become classically conditioned to fear the doctor who gives a painful shot during their first office visit o Children may also acquire fear through operant conditioning  behaviour is modified by consequences o Children learn still other fears simply by observing other people’s reactions  E.g. fear or do not fear falling based on the reaction of those around them when they actually fall Slide 5 - Functional Perspective - The purpose of emotions is to help people achieve their social and survival goals o Emotions can push children towards goals - Emotional signals provide feedback that guides other people’s behaviour - Memories of past emotions shape how people respond to new situations o Good feeling about situation makes the child want to continue doing it Slide 6 – Table 5.1 - (don’t need to memorize) - Emotions are a way for children to let others know how they feel - Emotions act as a window into a child’s likes and dislikes - Show their views on the world - Linked to children’s social successes and mental and physical health Slide 7 - Primary emotions - Joy – often defined by smiling Slide 8 - Figure 5.2 - Reflex smile o First smile that is seen in newborns o Spontaneous o Depends on internal stimulus, not external (i.e. not smiling because of mom/dad) o Ensures attention is going to be paid to the infant o Keeps the caregiver close o 3-8 weeks – infant smiles happen in response to external stimulus - Social smiles – 2-6 months o Up turn of the mouth for familiar voice/face o Recognize familiar faces more vs. unfamiliar faces - Smiles of general pleasure vs social smile o Distinguish between the two by crinkling of the mouth - Fake smile Slide 9 – The Role of Infant Smiling - Joint attention o Often when parent and child are playing with a toy o Child has to pay attention to parent and the toy o Child turns smile towards partner – showing that the smile is because of positive affect  From a pre-existing place - Reactive smile o Gaze at both object and partner – not sure which is the cause - Anticipatory smile o Joint attention o Pre-existing stimulus o Share emotions and information with partner o Increase in anticipatory smiles at 8-12 months  Not in reactive smiling (?) - Parlade, Messinger, Delgado, Kaiser, Van Hecke, and Mundy (2009) - Comparing anticipatory smiles to reactive smiles in 8-12 month olds - Study 1 o Identify precursors of anticipatory smiles o Measured social competence with expressivity and compliance - Study 2 o Replicated study 1 with larger sample and more recent measure of social emotional development o Looked at Internalizing and externalizing behaviours - Findings o Study 1  There was an increase in anticipatory smiling at 8-12 months  There was a positive association with social expressivity and compliance (and anticipatory smiling) o Study 2  Anticipatory smiles at 9 months were associated with social competence  Reactive smiles did not show this association  Patterns of emotional expressivity in infancy predict later social developmental outcomes Slide 11 – Is Laughter the best medicine? - Auditory stimuli elicit few laughs at any age during infancy - Tactile stimuli elicit a substantial amount of laughter in infants 7 to 9 months old o Baby toys have different textures – some that produce sounds when manipulated, leading to laughter - Visual and social stimuli elicit more laughter overall and the likelihood of this laughter increases with age - Laughing continues to increase in frequency and becomes more social as children mature Slide 12 – Primary Emotions: Fear - Develops in two phases o First phase – 3-7 months of age  Develop awareness  Illustrate interest, often turns into sober stares  Happens with unfamiliar faces o Second phase – 7-9 months  Show genuine, true fear  Negative reaction to unfamiliar people Slide 13 - Table 5.2 - Shows factors that cause fear – what results in more or less fear - How the mother reacts to the situation is important Slide 14 – What part of the message matters - Kim, Walden, and Knieps (2010) o Examined the characteristics of emotional channels that parents use during social referencing in relation to infants’ behavioural changes • Emotion channels = gestures, vocal tones, vocal content • Behaviour changes because of social referencing – by 7 months, infants are able to discriminate social expressions • By 5 months, distinguish happy and sad vocalizations • Social referencing emerges by 1 year - Social referencing - reading emotional cues o How to act in social situations o Infants base how they respond based on how other people respond - Study 1 o Examined how mothers used emotional channel o Whether different emotional channels relate to changes in infants’ behaviours o Whether the pattern differed for positive and fearful messages - Study 2 o Vocal tone intensity o Compared vocal tone in a positive and fearful message conditions  Tested intensity in tone and relationship with child response  Presented with unusual toy – 2 conditions – fearful, positive  Parents have to practice showing expressions  Parents were not allowed to tell their kids what to do with the toys  Always started with neutral expression - Findings - Study 1 o Fearful conditions = more gestures, behaviour change when more than one emotional channel  infant changes behaviour in fearful condition o Posi
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