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Lecture 6

PSYC21 - Lecture 6.docx

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Carly Prusky

PSYC21 – Lecture 6 Prof’s Speech - Purple Slide 2 – The Sense of Self - Individual self – aspects of the self that make a person unique and separate from others - Relational self – aspects of the self that involve connections to other people and develop out of interactions with others - Collective self – a person’s concept of self within a group, such as a group based on race or gender Slide 5 – Self-recognition - Contingency clues are derived from the fact that the mirror image moves precisely in tandem with the child’s own movements and is thus contingent upon them - Feature clues are stable physical features such as facial and bodily appearance which the child may have come to associate with themselves - Rouge test – measured at 18 weeks, pass the test at 2 years - Lewis and Brooks-Gunn (1979) o Investigated the respective roles of contingency clues and feature clues by using videotapes and photographs  Video and photos lack/exclude contingency clues o Signs of recognition can only be based on the feature clues, children need to understand their features and know they are different from other children o Found that self-recognition gradually develops over the first 2 years  9 months – self-recognition is based more on contingency clues  15 months – infants respond to feature clues (behave differently when they see themselves on tv/in a photo) o Self-recognition is also noticed through speech – children are able to differentiate themselves with their own names - Behavioral indications of self-recognition o 0-3 months: interest in social objects, but no self-other distinction o 3-8 months: first sign of self-recognition, based on contingency clues, but still tentative and unreliable o 8-12 months: emergence of self-permanence, recognition of the self through contingency, emergence of feature recognition o 12-24 months: consolidation of basic self categories (age, gender, etc.), feature recognition without contingency - Rouge test – put a sticker on child, videotape child doing another task with this sticker on and them had the child watch the video later – refer to selves as him or her o Even though they have their feature clues, the sticker might be something they are not cluing into Slide 8 – Self-Concept vs. Self-esteem - Self-concept o Beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, and ideas people have about themselves o Referred to as positive or negative - Self-esteem o Evaluation of traits, abilities, and characteristics o How you feel about yourself o Listed as high or low - Negative self-concept – individual view themselves as bad at something, but positive self-esteem means that they do not care - Scenario: Robert most clearly demonstrates a negative golf self-concept and a high level of self- esteem pertaining to golf Slide 10 – Self-concept - Children begin to think of themselves as separate individuals around 18-24 months - Importance – marks the beginning of them thinking they are their own person - 3-4 years – observable physical features, preferences, possessions, social characteristics - 5-7 years – competencies - 8-10 years – more complex descriptions – focus on abilities and interpersonal attributes o Based on social norms – what they think is more important - Early adolescence – interpersonal attributes, social skills, competencies, emotions; recognize different selves in different contexts - Mid-adolescence – introspective and preoccupied with what others think of them; begin to question self-descriptions, especially when there are contradictions - Late adolescence – emphasize personal beliefs, values, and moral standards; think about future and possible selves o Abstract values, beliefs and attitudes emerge o Follows Piaget’s stages of development (formal operations; high level of abstract thought) Slide 12 – Self-Esteem - In early childhood, self-esteem increases as children achieve success in things that are important to them - In adolescence, children may have high self-esteem in some areas and low in others o More realistic self-concept, therefore allowing for high self-esteem - Children who have high self-esteem, view themselves as competent, capable, and are pleased with who they are - High self-esteem in childhood is linked to a variety of positive adjustment outcomes including school success, good relationships with parents and peers, and less anxiety and depression - High self-esteem may foster experimentation or can be related to prejudice and antisocial behaviour o Increased sexual activity and drinking (experimentation) Slide 14 - Table 6.1 Slide 15 – Self-Perceptions - Children under the age of 8 tend to have unrealistically positive self-appraisals - Self-appraisals become more realistic across development as children incorporate feedback from others - Children also distinguish among different kinds of competence and view themselves as better in some domains than others o Self-appraisals in each domain affect global self-esteem - Girls have lower self-esteem than boys beginning in middle childhood and this difference increases in adolescence - Why? o Boys are more dominant and assertive than girls, which may contribute to a feeling of greater power and influence on the part of boys o Opportunities to participate in athletics – boys are more encouraged to participate and are more praised  For girls – physical appearance from participating in sports may make them look different from other girls (sporty physique) o Differences in appraisal of physical appearance based on societal ideals o Media influences how boys and girls are seen - Family influences o Children’s higher self-esteem associated with parents who are (authoritarian)  Accepting  Affectionate  Involved  Set clear and consistent rules  Use negotiating disciplinary tactics  Consider the child’s view in family decisions - Peers become increasingly influential across development, especially in the domains of o Physical appearance, popularity, and athletic competence - Children who perceive teachers to be supportive have higher self-esteem - Mentoring programs have positive effects on self-esteem o Dependant on consistentcy, quality, and duration of mentoring - Praising children on intelligence does not improve self-esteem, but instead sets them up for disappointment o Praise should be specific and sincere, not exaggerated o Allowing children to solve problems on their own will help their self-esteem and self- perception Slide 19 – Erikson - Provided a framework for understanding children’s psychosocial development - Believed that development is a lifelong process - Believed children continually face new developmental tasks or issues that they must somehow resolve as they mature o Positive and negative outcome for each stage - Stages of development - 0-18 months: trust vs. mistrust o Develop basic sense of trust when needs are met by caregiver - 18 months – 3 years: autonomy vs. shame/doubt o Have a will of their own, gain independence from their caregiver o But should not be forced to be independent (don’t want to make them feel unwanted) - 3-6 years: initiative vs. guilt o Gain senses of purpose and direction as the world expands o Children assume more responsibility for their actions o Children should not be guilted when they are not living up to parental expectations - 6-12 years: industry vs. inferiority o Develop capacity to work with others and master academic skills o Feel pride in successes - Adolescence: identity vs. role confusion o Must find out who they are, what they value o Must be given opportunities to explore alternate options and roles for their future o Forming identity o Puberty influences this as well as changes in cognitive development - Young adulthood: intimacy vs. isolation o Early experiences can cause isolation - Middle adulthood: generativity vs. stagnation o Giving to the next generation o Rearing children, caring for others, productiveness o If you fail at life, your life becomes meaningless - Late adulthood: ego integrity vs. despair o Reflecting on life, evaluating contributions o A satisfying life is a goal - Adolescents must find out who they are, what they value, and a direction for their lives. They must be given opportunities to explore alternative options and roles for the future Slide 21 - Identity achievement o Explored options and made commitments o High self-esteem, more mature, clear goal setting and better goal achievement - Identity moratorium o Exploring options but not making commitments o Anxious, strange and ambivalent relationships with parents and authority figures, better adjusted than foreclosure and diffusion identities - Identity foreclosure o No exploration but have made a commitment to who you are going to be o More authoritarian and inflexible; susceptible to extremes - Identity diffusion o No exploration or commitment o Identity crisis/commitment problem o Least mature in identity development Slide 22 – Developing an Ethnic Identity - Ethnic identity includes o Self-identification as a member of a group o Feelings of belonging/commitment to the group o Positive/negative attitudes toward the group o Sense of shared attitudes and values o Specific ethnic traditions and practices Slide 23 - Table 6.3 o Ethnic knowledge, self-identification, constancy, behaviours, preferences Slide 24 – Developing an Ethnic Identity - Infancy o Babies look longer at faces of their own race than faces of other races - Preschoolers o Have a global understanding of their culture and use ethnic labels; limited understanding of ethnic group constancy  Difficulty understanding that superficial changes do not change your identity - Early elementary school o Understand that identity does not change over time or context - Adolescence o Most active period of ethnic-identity development along with exploration of general identity - A strong ethnic identity is correlated with o Positive and high self-esteem o Resiliency  Ability to cope with and overcome significant adversity/stress in ways that promote health wellness and results in an increased ability to constructively respond to future adversity o Optimism o Psychological well-being o Positive academic behaviours o More social competence o Positive feelings toward the ethnic group Slide 27 – Ethnic Differences in self-concept and self-esteem - Early research suggested that children in certain minority groups may have lower self-esteem and self-concepts o However, there may have been problems with the research Slide 28 – Ethnic Identity, Self-esteem, and mental health - Mandara et al., 2009 o Examined the effects of racial identity and self-esteem on African American adolescents’ depressive and anxiety symptoms o In adolescence, there are periods of cognitive awareness, physical maturity and new race age pressures o Hypotheses
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