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Lecture 3

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David Haley

PSYC21 – Week 3 September 24, 2012. Mini Example research topic - in private culture has less of an affect than in public - universally, when have an emotion and try to suppress it  physiologically - what’s the repercussion? -if there are differences in individualistic vs. collectivistic group (one culture vs. another) need to know what is already known about that question document file should have your last name first, followed by first name aspects of biology that underlie social behaviour… - hormones  stress – cortisol  oxytocin – help regulate stress, facilitates social bonding, “love hormone” - brain waves  EEG – measures small fluctuations in electrical activity, on surface of scalp, generated by whole populations of neurons in the brain  fMRI – measuring changes in blood flow - DNA  studying it behaviourly – behavioural genetics, twin studies  molecular genetics - physical appearance  differences in physical maturation, influence on social development - reflexes and unconditioned responses  influence behaviour for rest of life that they have very little control over  how much control do we actually have over these biological mechanisms? Can we transcend who we are to become better? Biological foundations of social interaction - preparedness  babies come into this world just rearing to interact w/ people  biological rhythms  sleep-wake cycle (wake up, go to sleep)  cortisol: really elevated when wake up, by evening it’s very low, at night it stays really low until an hour before you wake up the levels sky rockets  predicts ability to interact w/ people (interactional synchrony)  when an infant=haven’t established biological rhythm, gradually develop it –those develop normal biological rhythm=greater behavioural synchrony with others  best way to relate because we don’t remember anything when we were that young, this claim probably explains what’s going on when two people start to love each other  visual preparation for social interaction  very interested in other people, fascinated by their faces, look at it a lot, over 2months of life=will increasingly look more at different parts of the face (eyes, to nose, to mouth)  auditory preparedness for social interaction  babies in the womb do have the capacity of taking in lots of experiences, can hear a story read to them  smell, taste, and touch  can discriminate among different odors or tastes when born, can prenatally develop specific tastes due to the mother’s diet while the baby was in the womb (cultural synchrony occurring prenatally)  do prefer mothers smell, can work the other way around in other animals –the smell can make mother like the baby=survival for the baby  touch: can have very profound physiological effects see it when it’s denied touch, premature babies who got a massage for 15min a day got to leave hospital a week early (neurochemical readings were significantly different vs. those who didn’t)  beyond faces and voices  have primitive way of regulating interaction and arousal too excited=look away  simple back and forth exchanges that contribute to notion of social synchrony too  cocaine exposed can’t self regulate, depressed mothers don’t regulate very well=social interactions don’t happen (no back and forth between the parties)  dyadic regulation  want others to help us out (other-self regulation)  if see baby is too aroused= lower their voice, slow down, back away = maybe a little later the baby will regain composure and interact again  we the individual have to regulate our affect and arousal  we take action  see how these two balance in some way (others provide some support and you do your own part)  mutual regulation (might be ticket to getting most optical development) –some will develop too much of either extreme  why are face-to-face interactions important?  infants first experience having ppl relate/respond to them and gives them sense of control that they can affect others behaviour and potentially change their own behaviour  necessary ingredient for developing self agency  increasingly learn that more subtle aspects of their being play a role in interaction w/ others as you get older it becomes more subtle (roll eyes, raising an eyebrow)
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