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Lecture 11

PSYC23H3 Lecture 11: LECT 11

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David Haley

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LECT 11 Recap - Attachment model of Psychopathology o Sleep’s regulatory role in daytime functioning is significant across the lifespan (get more sleep!) and don’t ever forget about PEP! o Elevated cortisol and sleep problems (e.g., night terrors) predicted greater internalizing sysmptoms (e.g., anxiety and depression) High cortisol + parasomnia internalizing symtoms Clinical approach you don’t get them when their still fine and healthy - you get them when they are full blown “crazy” o but the developmental psychpathologists/biologists approach contrasts from this o they get to see the kids when they are still fine, and follow them through until they get the disorder - we don’t have many memories of our childhood o even though we don’t remember it, theres a possibility that the experience is still important  it still infl who you develop o @ 6mo old you can have memory!!  The learning & memory is in place at that time  Even if you can remember it now, doesn’t mean you couldn’t remember it when it was happening - You cant look at parents & children separate o They have to be looked at together In the mid 20th c., Donald Winnicott and Melanie Klein used their seminal work with infants and young children to formulate developmental models describing how the mind comes into being. - Winnicott said that there is no baby without a mother and no mother without a baby (Winnicott 1960). o He was saying that the mind comes into being from within the context of a significant relationship, from within an intersubjective field. We begin ourselves by being with another. Memory • The first notion to get rid of is that memory is primarily or literally reduplicative, or reproductive. In a world of constantly changing environment, literal recall is extraordinarily unimportant and not the most ...memory appears to be an affair of construction rather than reproduction. – Bartlett, 1932 • The first notion to get rid of is that memory is primarily or literally reduplicative, or reproductive. In a world of constantly changing environment, literal recall is extraordinarily unimportant and not the most ...memory appears to be an affair of construction rather than reproduction. – Bartlett, 1932 - memory isn’t fixed o its dynamic/changing - every time you remember something, it gets recreated - you need to be able to shape/construct you memory o highlight the key points o don’t get remember everything literally Metaphors For Memory - deal w the way in which memory is stored/formed o when you are interesting in something, you heat up your memory capacity - we are constantly reconstructing and changing out stories - “heated wax” o you heat up the wax, and impression/experience can shape the wax a certain way o time element the idea of it being totally fixed is debated/questioned  the wax can be reheated & the shape can be changed - emotional stimulation heats up wax (ie. someone slaps you in the face) o thus helping you encode more details to further remember & consolidate Stress and Memory - Long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampus o LTP: neurons can fire for a long period of time  neuron keeps firing & responds to a particular stimulus o rats w LPT had enhanced performance & better memory - Stress receptors expressed in the hippocampus o stress receptors can directly affect key parts of the brain that are involved in memory  can shape our experiences o stress receptors in hippocampus (-) feedback; can shut off HPA-axis once cortisol enters brain  we know this - Stress receptor occupation o stress receptors in hippocampus involved in memory in general  amount of cortisol that reaches hippocampus, might have a curvilinear relationship  too little  not good memory consolidation  moderate good; enhances memory consolidation  too much  disrupts memory consolidation - Stress hormones and LTP o too little cortisol  no activation o moderate activation o too much  no activation *Moderate stress, not negative cascade effect of chronic stress* Stress Hormones Form Blood - moderate amount of cortisol enhances the process of connecting neurons o you have to get the neurons fired & connected to other neurons so you can create the “wax” that forms and supports a particular impression/experience Amygdala - hippocampus coordinates w amygdala w fearful/sad experiences - Patient S.M o Bilateral amygdala lesions (lipoid proteinosis) o Fearless  This isn’t always good; it can kill you o Emotional but enjoys fearful stimuli o Doesn’t learn to form associations between context and scary events  They forget the emotional/fearful aspect - Amygdala helps activate fear system o All fearful experiences S.M always reports no/little fear Three + Stages of Memory - when you encode something perception (learning for the first time) - over time, memory gets constructed; memory is forming o consolidation;  the mystery is in consolidation/reconsolidation - ability to retrieve depends on how you consolidated & encoded the memory Fear Memories - when you retrieve the memory, you invoke a new stage of consolidation (reconsolidation) o when you reconsolidate memory, you can change the memory slightly o ie. ppl w PTSD, when they are asked to remember, they are req to change the memory slightly so they don’t freak out - memory consolidation when activated timely o a few hours - Preventing the return of fear in humans using reconsolidation update mechanisms o Conditioned color squares with electric shocks  Conditioned response produces a fear response or fear memory  Followed with extinction (color squares without shocks) within 6 hour consolidation window o 24 hours later fear response was not present for those who underwent the extinction within 6 hour window but not for those who had extinction outside this window  1 year later fear conditioning reinstated  But again only in those who had not received the extinction training within the 6 hour window RESULTS - Remarkably, those who had undergone extinction training within the reconsolidation window were largely spared significant effects. - By contrast, those whose training had been delayed 6 hours or who hadn't experienced fear memory reactivation prior to extinction training experienced significant reinstatement of the fear response. In a similar experiment, the researchers also confirmed that the fear memory was blocked only for the specific colored square for which fear memory was reactivated prior to extinction training. - The effect did not generalize to a differently colored square associated with the shocks. - This indicated that memory re-writing during reconsolidation is highly specific and that prior reactivation with the specific stimuli is critical. o Timing may have a more important role in the control of fear than previously appreciated," Phelps suggested. "Our memory reflects our last retrieval of it rather than an exact account of the original event." o Evidence suggests that the behavioral manipulation may work through the same molecular mechanisms as experimental medications under study for quelling traumatic emotional memories. "Using a more natural intervention that captures the adaptive purpose of reconsolidation allows a safe and easily implemented way to prevent the return of fear," suggest the investigators. STUDY - manipulated timing of when they introduced extinction o there was less memory for the fearful experience if they had extinction done in that time window slapping someone in the face right when they learn something changes their reconsolidation - time to manipulate memory is RIGHT AWAY Infant Stress And Memory Literature - studies that manipulated stress during or after memory learning is rare - there is evidence that stress can facilitate consolidation, BUT it can also disrupt retrieval •  Initial conclusion – Positive stress effects on consolidation and negative stress effects on retrieval If your interested in kids’ experiences, you do you get the memories out of them?? - look at how strong sucking is when exposed to a stimuli - freq of kicking - nonverbal communication STUDY - Rovee-Collierr & Barr o @ 2mo infant can learn to associate their foot kicking w the movement of some object that foot is tied to  hap
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