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Lecture 3

PSYC23 Lecture 3.docx

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David Haley

PSYC23 Lecture 3  Testing Hypotheses: Respect, search and explain what is known  Interrogate what is known and see if there is gap in literature and other explanations for phenomenon  Review what is novel, possible and shown  Developmental psychobiology is linked to Genes, Cognitive Development, and Attachment  Cog dev: where our early experiences and how they effect cog and see novel view of how early experience is important to cog dev  Rider questioning all these theories of cog development and tries to go against old traditions= what is science all about= questioning old man  Hoffer: its not so simple just to say we have this emotional bond and just leave It that/ accept it as important= theres gotta be something else or something else that underlies that onept that we can understand and explain that concept  Science= question our assumptions and dif deeper Genes  Developmental Systems Theory: 2 major views in the history of science  A) Predetermined: Genes structural maturation activity and experience  B) Probabilistic: genes structural maturation  activity ad experience  Assumption 1: Predetermined Epigenesis Everything we become is known in advance and all the information in our genes and developmental outcomes reflect the expression of pre existing forms o Counter evidence: In terms of embryonic activity: Fibular crest connects tibia to fibula when a chick embryo is prevented form moving within the egg, the fibular crest bone fails to develop o Lickliter: how one of connecting bones forms is contingent on prenatal expeirnece, not on the gene itself= gene has no role, experinece is what is the causal factor  Assumption 2: Heredity as a gene: Genes are the exclusive vehicles by which these instructions are transmitted from one generation to the next Evolution didn’t happen unless we had genes as the carrier of our traits o Counter evidence: In terms of intrauterine Effects in Gerbils i.e. masculinity can be via genes or early experiences such as biological conditions  females born in a litter of mostly males will be exposed to more testosterone= greater delay in maturation, greater aggression, and gives birth to more males= cycle continues  Assumption 3: Genes encapsulated: there is no meaningful feedback from the environment or the experience of the organism to the genes its like a computer program that performs the same operation each time o Counter evidence: There is lots of evidence that there are ways in which genes are contingent on the enviornment o i.e Dutch hunger winter: “Gene insulin-like growth Factor II (IGF2) produes protein that promotes growth and development” o Genes that code for this show epigenetic marks (methylation) o Offspring exposed prenatally to Dutch Winter showed 5% less methylation of IGF2, which may contribute to greater risk of disease o Under certain conditions things go under diff developmental trjaectories under diff conditions= how genes are making these deicion= metamorphosis of plants Cognitive Development  Learning to learn : Bright eyed vs Dull Eyed Learners= Rat Studies and Isolated vs Peer vs Mother reared harlow studies= Reserch shows that if u have e good expeirence early on/ normal intereaction with parents= u will be bright eyed/smart and not slow/dull eyed in rat studies o Under good situations u will dev good IQ + motivation and bad under bad situations= we can now interrogate o When u test rats from bad environment and habituate them to learning task= they do better than the rats who were from rich/normal environment= we are not looking closely enough at the kinds of experiences that they are having  Complexity dissonance Theory of Early Experiences and Development o Environmental complexity induces psychological complexity : multiple stimulatory experiences are needed for infant to respond, perceptual and motor skill training involves multimodal stim, there is both predictable and unpredictable perceptual motor feedback and control of at least some external events is needed o There can be components of the environment that are complex= level of complexity can be diff maybe will help us figure out whats going on o Mre complex environments can yield greater psychological complexity i.e. monkeys raised in 3 environments= standard lab, wild, deprivation with 3 types of playgrounds with increased complex toys= o Diffs between 3 groups were determined by whichh level of complexity they were exposed to/ which type of playground o Complex chain playground= bright learner environment didn’t matter– what mattered was the level of complexity of the environment/playground opportunities Attachment  Traditional view: approach and engage another individual, prefer to be with that indivudal and distressed upon separation  Alternatives and or elaborative view: approach and prefer the individual based on learning of specific associations in specific modalities (olfactory, auditory, and visual_  Individual components of distress response (HR, activity, etc) are controlled by many changes in the environment  Attachment theory assumes that u are selective and like them and u get distressed when they are gone and then transfer these early attachment funcitons to other people Hoffer= maybe its not automatic  Hoffer: What creates the attachment bond, why is seperation stressful and why does early experience have long lasting effects?  What creates this bond: Prenatal Experience: babies prefer moms voice (nipple sucking activates moms voice), babies remember what moms read to them (sucking rates differ for familiar stories), babies cry in the accent of their moms (French vs german) and babies remember what their moms eat and develop preferences for certain foods o He starts with the assumption that we have a predisposition to be born to be oriented to a caregiver= based on learning that takes place in the womb prenatally o The reason by babies prefer their moms is because they have a whole experience with associated the nipple with getting food and experience her voice in the womb o They show the predisipotion by getting excited o Infants have odor learning= associate nice brush stimulation with smell i.e. also prefer to sit near smell  Sullivan et al subjected neonatal rats to a fear-conditioning paradigm that involved odor–shock pairings. They envisioned this aversive conditioning paradigm as a model for early attachment to an abusive caregiver.  They found that very young rat pups exposed to odors associated with electric shocks were attracted to that odor--i.e., they learned an approach response to that
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