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PSYC31 NOTE4.docx

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Konstantine Zakzanis

***midterm: ppt Comparison Standards for Deficit Measurement - The concept of behavioral deficit presupposes some ideal, normal, or prior level of functioning against which the patient’s performance may be measured. - Typical norm, e.g. digit span – 2 not necessarily means abnormal. - Balance of probability - Comparison standard, normative derived from an:  Appropriate (normative population)  Individual (derived from the patient’s history or present characteristics), depending on the patient, the behavior being evaluated, and the assessment purpose. - Neuropsychological assessment uses both normative and individual comparison standards for measuring deficit, as appropriate for the function or activity being examined and the purpose of the examination. - Be aware of judgmental biases when estimating pre-morbid abilities  E.g. Greek man and Counter-transference  Confirmation bias – going into certain clinics – get certain diagnosis  Court/ Education vs. IQ test/ - The population average  The normative comparison standard may be an average or middle (median) score  Check stratified variables, such as age, cultural background, gender, education, time period (can be outdated – W, information about certain person, e.g. musician), SES, (lack accessibility to resources, more stress), occupation  Not stratified by neurological disorders: normal = healthy  Add 1 variable = more time and resources   Most= 1 S.D. below and above average  Average  2 S.D. below  Low Average  3 S.D. below  Borderline Score  Low  very borderline  2 S.D. above  Above average  3 S.D. above  Superior  Highest  very superior  68%, 1SD  98%, 2SD  99%, 3SD - For adults, the normative standard, or norm, for many measurable psychological functions and characteristics is a score representing the average or median performance of some more or less well-defined population - And it is stratified by important demographic characteristics can you think of any? - The overall distribution of performance tends to be skewed in the direction of abnormal scores as a few persons in any randomly selected sample can be expected to perform poorly, while nature seems to set an upper limit on such aspects of memory span…  IQ, reading, comprehension, reaction time  Ceiling effect - Limitations of Normative Standards  Comparisons with population averages do not add significantly to the information conveyed by the test scores alone, for most test scores are themselves numerical comparisons with population norms  When examining patients for adult-onset deficits, only by comparing present functioning with prior functioning can the examiner identify real losses  In other words, we don’t know what the person’s pre morbid abilities were like…. - The Measurement of Deficit (Individual)  Direct Measurement of Deficit o One way deficit can be assessed directly is when there are normative comparison standards for the behavior in question (e.g., inability to copy a simple drawing or t
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