Class Notes (811,170)
Canada (494,539)
Psychology (7,646)
PSYC31H3 (65)
Lecture 5


85 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

find more resources at Chapter 04: The Rational of Deficit Measurement • Neuropsychological assessment is distinguished through its emphasis on the identification and measurement of psychological deficits. It is through these deficits that brain disorders are manifested o This also requires documentation of preserved functions • Brain damage always implies behavioural impairment o Even if these deficits cannot be clearly observed, a careful assessment will probably reveal them, such as in the case of a postal clerk who had suddenly become extraverted as being shy most of his life. Although seen as an improvement, he was suspected to be developing Alzheimer’s, because of attention and memory losses o Deficits may slight or unobservable by the patient, such as in the case of unilateral inattention where one does not know that they don’t see objects • Neuropsychological assessment focuses on cognitive impairments over other impairments as cognitive impairments accompany almost all brain dysfunctions, because most common cognitive defects (such as aphasias) are likely to be noticed by others, and because they interfere with one’s capacity to function independently o Measurements of other functioning can be problematic ▪ Measurements of personality change are unreliable ▪ Measurements of mental efficiency or executive function are usually evaluated through their effect on specific cognitive activities • The use of summed scores are not appropriate in measuring function, such as in the case of summed intelligence scores. They indicate little about the preservation/destruction of specific functions o WAIS-III authors suggested aggregating Block Design test (involving abstract visual analysis), WIS-A Picture completion test (with no visuospatial component), and Matrix Reasoning test (with a verbal mediation element) into a Perceptual Organization Index o WAIS-IV authors suggest a composite Perceptual Reasoning scale composed of visuospatial and verbal reasoning scores Comparison Standards for Deficit Measurement • A comparison standard may be normative (from an appropriate population) or invididual (from a patient’s history or present characteristics) depending on the patient, the behaviour being evaluated, and the assessment’s purposes • Examiners need to be aware of judgmental biases when estimated premorbid abilities Normative Comparison Standards • This may be a mean or median score • For many cognitive functions, age, education, or vocational achievement can significantly affect test performance • Population norms are most effective in evaluating basic cognitive functions that develop through childhood; tests of memory, perception, attention, and tests involving motor skills do this o Performances for these capacities do not distribute normally, as “nature has set an upper limit on such aspects of mental activity as processing speed and short-term storage capacity.” Instead, they skew negatively o Functions most suited to evaluation by population norms tend to be age-dependent. Education also contributes to performance on these tests find more resources at
More Less

Related notes for PSYC31H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.