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Lecture 3

Lecture 3.docx

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Zachariah Campbell

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Lecture 3 – Jan 21 Neuropathology: CNS Tumours Abnormal growth of tissue within the brain/spinal cord Benign (less serious, non-cancerous, slow growing, singular. Space occupying, separate from nervous system) vs. Malignant (cancerous, more likely to reoccur, more aggressive. Infiltrates normal tissue) Primary (involves glial cells) vs. Secondary (tissue somewhere else that is impacting the CNS) Grades of severity • 1 (least severe, easier to treat) through 4 (this is the most severe) Brain Tumors: Gliomas Etiology: Glial cells Subtypes • Astrocytomas • Oligodendrogliomas • Mixed Glioblastoma • Fast growing Malignant astrocytomas Meningiomas: cancerous growth of the meninges Brain Tumors: Metastatic Metastatic (origin of growth is from another part of the bodyintracranial neoplasm Features • Expedited growth rate (relative) • Multiple sites are typical • Symptoms include headaches, seizures, and cognitive/behavioural sequallae Metabolic and Endocrine Disorders Diabetes Mellitus – Type 1 • Pancreatic dysfunction o Need injections of insulin • Glucose levels dysregulated • Expected symptoms? o The brain requires glucose to fuel it o Lethargy o Poor attention, learning, memory – global cognitive deficit Hypothyroidism – does not release enough thyroxin (needed to regulate metabolism) • Symptoms: cognitive impairment and fatigue • Delirium and hallucinations are not uncommon Liver disease • Multiple etiologies o Chronic alcoholism o Viral infections – Hepatitis B&C • Impairment varies with level of associated toxicity • Treatment approach: preventative Uremia: kidney failure • Treatment approach: symptomatic – dialysis • Symptoms are general in nature but include apathy, lethargy, and cognitive impairment Seizure Disorders Etiology: multiple origins Epilepsy • Chronic neurological form of SD • Episodic symptoms: affect behaviour/perception • Abnormal discharge of neurons o Depends on where it takes place o Each time that it happens, it’s more likely to happen again • Generalized (don’t know where affected fulci is located, quite a bit of the brain is affected) vs. Partial (we know where it is affected) • Symptomatic (we know where the seizure originated) vs. Idiopathic (we don’t know where the seizu
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