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PSYC35H3 (97)

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Marc A Fournier

Stereotype and Attention • Valence attributes: evaluations(+ or -) , non valence are not associated with + or – • Links between concepts are called associations • Attributes are networks of association concepts • The idea of spider web-concepts are related in the head but different in strength of association • Speed of concepts lighting up depends on strength • Self reports are limited to impression management, + demand characteristics(people answer what they consciously think), self reports may or may not be accurate • Implicit assessment o IAT(Greenword) o Opportunity to circumvent self reports • Explicit methods such as self reports are thoughts we have conscious access to, they can be controllable and deliberate • Implicit processes are cognitive • declarative knowledge(found in explicit) and procedural (implicit) knowledge lead to access of different types of knowledge • Self esteem, the more strength of association between you and good • Self esteem is the concept of self with valence • The stronger the association between concepts the stronger the self esteem • Self concept-association of self with non valence attributes(between self and non-evaluative constructs) • Attitude-evaluation of something out there in world, evaluative beliefs about things in the world(i.e you think professors are good) • Sterotype(i.e you think all professors are intelligent) • In order to explain a lot of things you need a lot of complex theories, Greenwald was able to integrate self and social psychology together(comprehensiveness achieved) • Associations are expected to differ in strength o The stronger the association the more likely it’s going to trigger other related phenomena • Implicit association test- test difference in strength between different associations between different concepts • In the card examples, within each association there is something that links them together(such as colour or shape) o Associations of cards according to colour is easier because it is a common, simple task o But experiment 2 is harder for most people but for those who play Bridge have different associations • You can infer strength of association in cognitive network through the speed with which you are able to sort concepts(the speed of which you can sort concepts implies the strength of association) • IAT-various cues(words related to target concept are shown and person has to sort them out) o This task is facilitated through the extent to which you associate good things with yourself o Select cues that are or not relevant to you o Another task which involves evaluating objects as good or bad o Then you combine both tasks together, either good/bad and you/not you o This is to see whether good is associated with your or not you o If reaction time for trail 3 is shorter than 5, it means the more you associate good with self o Hopefully you should slow on trail 5 because there is less association between you and bad(going to compare relative speed of #3 and # 5, the relative extend to which good is related to you vs. not you) o By sorting things out we can benefit or hurt ourselves depending on how we associate things • IAT was done to find implicit attitudes(maybe you associate good things with European(white) and bad things with black people o IAT is not perfect, it’s more mindful o You can prime people, make them more confident ETC o Self reports are also vulnerable to other factors • Implicit attitudes between Japanese vs. Koreans o Feeling of in group favouriticism and out group steroticism o will they differentiate names based on whether it’s Japanese or Korean when sorting them into good and bad o ethnic immersion-how immerse you are with your ethnicity(how acultured or remained in that culture) o the columns reflect latency/reaction times o Koreans do a lot better when Korean names are associated with good things(+ valence words(similar results with Japanese) o It seems that strength of association between ones own ethnic group and positive evaluation o When points were plotted along level of cultured immersion Each group clustered(linear relationship for both groups) More immerse they were in their culture the more dramatic their reaction times were(more quick for their names than the others)—facilitated performance • Implicit self esteem o 2 separate measures for IAT-o
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