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PsyC35-Lecture 4

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Marc A Fournier

Psyc35 - lecture 4 Oct. 5, 2011 types, traits and prototypicality Chart: rows are the participants( replications) the columns are the variables you have measured...find columns that have similarities, which columns of number have the most similarity to eachother...this is the goal of factor anaylsis var1 var2 var3 Sub1 Sub2 Sub 3 -type is a group of peoples that share things in common profile across a number of variables -today's lecture ties in with the third reading - Personality structure: - the variable centered approach -the pattern of covariation among personality attributes ina population - serach for personality traits= traits are cluster of attributes - The person centered idiographic approach -the configuration of personality attributes within a single individual - inverse factor anaylsis: variables along the rows and subjects in the columns...not the cluster of variables, but the cluster of subjects...result deals with the personality types - Search for types: Ego control adn Ego resiliency (read this later) - measured two personality constructs in children and as they age - Block: personality prototypes: - Q sort: 100 statements that people would typically display - Take these statements and sort them into 9 bins...ranging from most similar to not discriptive of the person in question - Numbers on the bins have a quasi type format; the most in the middle, evenly distributed - three types : undercontrolled , overcontrolled, resilient - undercontrolled; scored low on ego resiliency and low ego control...can't hold their act together - overcontrolled: low ego resiliency, high ego control...rigid, - resilient: high ego control, moderate ego to restrain their impulses, can change and fluctuate depending on the situation...flexibility, and behave appropriately - these are the Arc types: derived from Block - Each of these types has its own unique profile on the big five: - undercontrolled: High on N, low on C and maybe A..externalizes their problems conduct problems, rule breaking, distrupting social activity - overcontrolled: High N, low on E...vulnerable to internalizing withdrawl, depression, anxiety, insecurity...they don't disrupt with affairs around them - resilient: Low on N adn High on E,A, C,O...good adjustment Question 1: Do ARC types represent the optimal cluster structure in Big five data? - different samples find different types...different number of types - need a very large sample to answer this question because many samples have different answers. Question 2: Are the ARC types discrete or fuzzy? Is there a spectrum of prototypicality? - fuzzy could provide more overlap - personality traits is a first way, personality types is second, the third way of thinking about people is prototypicality: conjoining characteristics from both...this is a dimension, how similar are you to how disimiiliar are you to a given personality type. - D: how similar you are to a different is each score...take difference and square them to get postive answer...the bigger the number, the greater difference Question 3: Do ARC types and/or prototypicality scores display long term predictive validity for health outcomes? are they better predictors than traits? -For general and cardiovascular health...this is a leading health problem in america What was the method? participants were children from 1-6 years old...then followed them up 40 years later. - at baseline, their teacher
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