Personality Dynamics : Interpersonal Perception
- Traits that can be beneficial when meeting face to face
- exam is next week! 5 lectures and 5 readings
- basic questions: person perception- special class of object perception
- person perception should be separate, different: this is a reciprocal
process, perceiving eachother and inteactional process, transactional...you
and the other person know that you are evaluating eachother...person
perception is likely related to self-perception, greater level of ego involment,
some attributes that people have are things we have or don't have....people
are more dynamic targets than objects, we are perceiving attibutes that are
changing, interactions with different people are different, they will act
differently with someone else than with you
- interpersonal perception: people in process of rating and evaluating
-9 basic questions of David Kenny:
- One person (X) rates another(Y) on some trait(Z):
-does X rate all others in the same way? This is an assimilation process, the
tendency to perceive all others in the same way...high or low in an attribute.
- does Y get rated by all others in the same way? Consensus: A person gets
rated in an agreeable manner, meaning that he gets rated by everyone in the
- Does X rate Y in an idiosyncratic way? Uniqueness: perception that X has of
Y, is unique...
- All three phenomenon can be known if a group of people have rated them
all on some attribute.
- Except this: Is X's rating of Y correct? Accuracy: this requires an external
criteria, some goal standard...inaccurate or accurate...
- the foundation of this research has a basic design - The round-robin design : every member of a group has some interaction
with everyother person in the group.
- The people brought in might not have been aqainted: zero
aquaintance..never interacted with them
- Or can use a method where people have previously known eachother
- Every person will be rating eachother person
- Every person in this design is a perceiver ( offering ratings), and also
a target( recieving evaluations). Sometimes called the actor and partner.
- these ratings cannot be known to the participants in the design...so
there is no social persuasive factor.
- continued with design: the rows are the ratings of the perceiving and the
- Comparisons of data: comparisons as a whole, comparison of one person
has perceived, and the comparison of how everyone has perceived the
- Trying to make sense of everyone's as a group score....
- Assesing this more quantitatively:
- social relations model: x's rating of Y on trait z= the function of four
- Zxy= Person X rates person Y on trait Z
- constant: the average level at which perceivers rate targets on Z...not
- Px: perceiver Effect: The extent to which X rates all targets as high or
low on Z
- Ty: Target Effect: the extent to which Y is rated by all perceivers as
high or low on Z
- Rxy Relationship Effect: The extent to which X's unique rating of Y is
high or low on Z...the way that is not explained by how X perceives everyone
else and not how Y gets perceived. ie. People who are special get rated
differently in relation to others rate
- Exy=Error: inconsistent or unstable aspects of the rating process..we
want to minimize the error... - when we conduct this analysis, each person gets at least 2 scores: your
affect as a perceiver ( how you score other people) and a score of being a
target affect ( get high or low scores)...each person also gets a bunch of
relationship scores...but they will all receiver 2 scores...
- are these given as averages? perceiver affect as average score of you give
everyone...and target affect is the average score people have given you.
- negative or positive affect in relation to the whole group sample: correcting
around the constant...like, negative in the sense that you perceiver less than
the average pf everyone, or positively...or you rated less or more than
-Variations in Zxy decomposes into: The total variation of sample can be
broken down in these
- Variance in the target effect ( consensus)
- Variance in the perceiver Effect, they way you typically see other
people ( assimilation)
- Variance i