Tayyab Rashid, Ph.D., C.Psych
Health & Wellness Centre
Exercise: Positive Introduction
Think about a time when you were at your best. You don’t need to
come up with a grand or life-changing event. Perhaps what comes
to mind is a small event that called forth the best in you. It can
also be an on-going situation which lasted for a while. R eflect
about this time or situation which brought the best out of you.
Make it in the form of a story with a clear beginning, middle, and a
Our Time Together… .
Why Positive Psychotherapy?
Assumptions, theory & empirical evidence
Character Strengths, Usage, Goal Setting,
Flow, Creating Your Best Self
Good & Bad Memories
Post-traumatic Growth (PTG)
Process & Integration
Q & A
Why Positive Psychotherapy?
Z igar ik & Adaptation
Discovered that our memory for negative events is very good.
1. Our memory for incomplete and negative events is very
2. We adapt to everything – we are creatures of adaptions
a. The first chocolate taste good, but many after that
b. The graph: as income increases, happiness does not
increase – this is because we adapt to everything
i. The independent variables don’t add more
than 10-15% of happiness – early 50% is
genetic. Independent variables include:
education, where you live
This is why we need PPT, because we
need to help our clients to see what they
can change to be more happy. Lecture
1. we have an inborn capacity for growth
2. Positive strengths are just as
important as negative strengths.
Longitudinal research on childhood
events, even traumatic, do not have an
impact on your personality.
3. therapeutic relationships are based on the notion that the therapists
has the authority, expertise and credentials to diagnose a client. But the
therapy is about doing that together??? Solid therapeutic relationship is
really listening to the client
Temper tantrums ODD
Organization & neatness OCD
Introversion Social Anxiety
Premenstrual emotional change Premenstrual Dysphoric d/o
A couple of drinks Alcohol Intoxication
Preoccupation with appearance Body Dysmorphic d/o
the notion that once a disorder is figured out, the individual tend to exaggerate their symptoms
Not all Smiles are Created Equal
An authentic smile is the flexion of __________ muscles.
If someone’s smile is inauthentic, you’ll probably
notice it. What does a smile have to do with anything?
Smile is positive Lecture
Pleasure, Engagement, Relationships, Meaning & Accomplishments (PERMA, Seligman, 2011)
Happiness has three components:
1. Pleasant life or positive emotions : we are sensory beings, sweet
sounds, tastes, temperature needs to be congenial to be comfortable.
The countries where the basic life c onditions are terrible, their well
beings are low.
2. Engagement: modern, contemporary culture deprives us of this, we
need to put in effort
healthy, strong and close
relationships is very important
4. Meaning: we need to have a sense of
meaning: are you getting this degree for the sake
of credentials or is there
5. Accomplishment: it is innate human motive to strive for something,
and the sense of accomplishment
~ Pleasure Engagement/Accomplishment Meaning/Relationships
¡ Positive Introduction ¡ Assess your ¡ PTG
¡ Negative Memories Engagement/Flow ¡ Positive r’ships
¡ Gratitude Letter/Visit ¡ Identify your SS ¡ Positive Comm
¡ Three Nightly Blessings ¡ SS: Action Plan ¡ Gift of Time
¡ Slowness & ¡ Maximizing and
Savoring Satificizing Lecture
(Seligman, Rashid, & Parks, 2006)
50 ZUNG < 50
40 CES-‐‑D < 10
30 Hamilton < 10
PPT TAU TAU+Meds
PPT exercises with Children (Rashid & Anjum, 2007)
PPT exercises with Teachers
BControl PreI Control Post Lecture
¡ DBT and PPT
¡ Sin & Lyubomirsky, 2009
¡ Flückiger et al., 2009
¡ Wood & Tarrier, 2010 – their metastudy suggests that when you tap at the positives,
things improve for depressed individuals ???
Positive Emotions in Therapy
Fitzpatrick & Stalikas (2008)
change people’s mindsets: open scope of attention, broaden behavioral
repertoires, and increases intuition, creativity (divergent thinking).
¡ Work as re-set buttons predict:
(a) resilience to adversity
(b) increased happiness
(c) psychological growth
(d) lower levels of cortisol
(e) reduced inflammatory responses to stress
(f) reductions in subsequent-day physical pain
(g) resistance to rhinoviruses and
(h) reductions in stroke Lecture
Susan, a 38-year old, married woman
Since five months, unable to work
Marriage, ‘”empty and lacking intimacy”
On positive measures, Susan’s signature strengths included social intelligence, modesty, and
kindness, appreciation of beauty and excellence and spirituality.
Case Conceptualizatio n
¡ What difference the knowledge of strength makes, in addition to symptoms, in
conceptualizing Susan’s case? She was creative, but when depression hit, she stopped
painting, and it took sometime to get her back to doing that--- don’t expect a linear
¡ What specific role strengths can play in the treatment? Describe potential benefits and
disadvantages? The nuance: she was kind to others but not enough with herself
¡ Cultural context:
200+ Virtue Texts