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Lecture 4

PSYCHOTHERAPY lecture 4.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Amanda Uliaszek

PSYCHOTHERAPY Lecture 4 Behaviour Therapy- Oct 2, 2012 Behaviour can be an emotion, thought or action • Learning > A relatively enduring change in behaviour (whenever we talk about someone who is messed up, at one point they had an adaptive focus) > It occurs when animals benefit from experience so that their behavior is better adapted to the environment > People are always adapting to the environment • Why would learning theory be important in psychotherapy? Classical Conditioning (PAVLOV) Ex. phobia: we are genetically predisposed to fear things like the dark, bugs, wild animals, blood, heights, etc • Acquisition > Contiguity – the two stimuli are bonded together in time (ex. If Albert saw the rat and played with him for an hour, THEN he got scared, that's not really going to condition him) • Stimulus generalization > John Watson : it could be a white rabbit and it could still elicit the same response (because it looks similar to the white rat) • Extinction: > Presentation of feared stimulus without the occurrence of the feared response; • Habituation: > be continually presented with rodent and nothing bad happens; repeated introduction of the stimuli; eventually you stop being afraid Classical Conditioning Neutral stimulus (subway)--> Unconditioned stimulus (panic attack) --> unconditioned Response (Fear/anxiety) Conditioned stimulus (subway) --> conditioned response (fear/anxiety) Operant Conditioning • BF Skinner • Law of effect > Behavior leading to a satisfying outcome are likely to reoccur > Behavior leading to an aversive outcome are not likely to reoccur REINFORCEMENT AND PUNISHMENT • Reinforcer–increases behavior: give ex. Exam question for coming earlier to class • Punisher–decreases behavior: ex. Shock someone • Positive–adding something: stop doing something in order to increase their behaviour • Negative–removing something • Ex. you punish the dog for peeing on the floor, but the dog has no idea what you're punishing him for • Punishment and reinforcement need to happen in close time • Positive punishment: adding something bad • Negative punishment: taking away something good • Negative reinforcement: taking away something bad, to repeat behaviour • Positive reinforcement: adding something good, to repeat behavior SHAPING • Reinforcing behaviors that are increasingly similar to the desired behavior • (when sheldon made penny lower her voice, by giving him chocolate. Everytime Penny did something Sheldon wanted him to do, he rewarded her with chocolate ) • In shaping, the form of an existing response is gradually changed across successive trials towards a desired target behavior by rewarding exact segments of behavior. OPERANT CONDITIONING AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY • Addiction: when you're avoiding something bad (you get sick) and then you take dope which makes you feel better (negative reinforcement) • Borderline Personality Disorder (I need to get something dramatic going when I need help) • Secondary gains: a positive aspects of having a mental disorder Behaviour Therapy • Functional assessment:  Most interested in maintenance, not etiology  The focus when conducting a functional behavioral assessment is on identifying significant, pupil-specific social, affective, cognitive, and/or environmental factors assoc
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