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Lecture 6

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC37H3
Professor
Anthony Ruocco
Semester
Winter

Description
Psychology Assesssment - Lecture #6 ; Feb 12/13 Theories and Individual Tests of Intelligence and Achievement Intelligence  What is intelligence?  It is one of the most highly researched topics in psychology  Interestingly, psychologists are better at measuring intelligence than conceptualizing it!  Definitions of Intelligence  Operational definition  Defines a concept by the way it is measured  Real definition  Tells the true nature of what is being defined Alternative Definitions of Intelligence  Eastern conceptualizations emphasize benevolence, humility, freedom from conventional standards of judgment, and doing what is right  African views place heavy emphasis on social aspects such as maintaining harmonious and stable intergroup relations - intelligence in the end is the test that we use Recurring Themes 1. Capacity to learn from experience - used in current tests 2. Capacity to adapt to one's environment - how well can you change your behaviour so your interacting successfully with your environment - not used in tests so much Galton and Sensory Keenness  Theory that intelligence was underwritten by keen sensory abilities  Largely viewed as a psychometric “dead end”  Vestiges of this approach appear in modern chronometric analysis of intelligence Spearman and the g Factor  General factor (g) - general intelligence - some part of the brain that is just general intelligence - it will be associated with specific factors  Specific factors (1 ,2s 3 s , and so on) 1 Psychology Assesssment - Lecture #6 ; Feb 12/13 left side - test A & B right side - test C & D e = error tests may overlap to some degree in how much it is actually measuring the general factor (g) tests A & B are highly correlated - tests that share high loading on g tests C & D weakly correlated - two tests that are not really sharing the g factor Thurstone and the Primary Mental Abilities  Using factor analysis , concluded that intelligence comprised several broad group factors (primary mental abilities) – and not a single general factor  Verbal Comprehension  Word Fluency - tell me how many words you can think of that start with the letter "f" - example  Number  Space  Associative Memory  Perceptual Speed  Inductive Reasoning Thurstone and the Existence of g  discovered that his primary mental abilities correlated moderately with each other  ultimately, acknowledged the existence of g as a higher-order factor Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Theory  Intelligence consists of pervasive, broad, and narrow abilities that are hierarchically organized 2 Psychology Assesssment - Lecture #6 ; Feb 12/13  Definitions of CHC Broad Ability Factors - different labels for memory  Fluid Intelligence/Reasoning (Gf)  Domain-Specific Knowledge (Gkn)  Visual-Spatial Abilities (Gv)  Auditory Processing (Ga)  Broad Retrieval (Gr)  Cognitive Processing Speed (Gs)  Decision/Reaction Time or Speed (Gt) Guilford and the Structure - of - Intellect Model -intelligence means: we have 3 different main components - operations - things our brain does - certain things it operates on (contents) and it can result in certain things (products)  Operations  cognition  memory  divergent production - creative way of thinking  convergent production - closing way of thinking  evaluation  Products  unit  class  rotation  system  transformation  Contents  visual  auditory  symbolic  semantic  behavioral Gardner's Seven Natural
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