Lecture 9 – November 12 th
From Last class:
Free Recall: list all words from the list that you remember.
Cued Recall: “Tell me the words that were furniture”
Recognition: “Did I say ‘desk’?”
MoCA is good for identifying people with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). This group of patients is
often missed by larger tests like the MMSE, since this test has better sensitivity (correct identification of
true positives) and specificity (correct identification of true negatives; only looks at those affected).
MoCA has 87% specificity whereas the MMSE is 100% specificity. This means that MMSE will never make
it seem as though someone has a cognitive impairment when they really don’t have one. Yet, MMSE has
a poorer sensitivity than MoCA (MoCA has 90-100% sensitivity), meaning that MoCA is better at letting
you know that the person tested has MCI or not.
Dr. Bagby’s Guest Lecture about Personality:
Eysenck argued that there are no set of personality traits that are real, unless they have a biological
basis. So, he focused on these traits:
Neuroticism: Negative affect; dimensional scale, in which one can obtain either a high or low score.
Extraversion: How outgoing someone is; also dimensional, meaning that if you score high, you are
an extrovert, and if you score low, you’re an introvert
Psychoticism: actually measures impulsivity (it was added later on).
The Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ): developed by a psychiatrist with the same reason
as Eysenck: to discover the set of traits that are based on our biology. The psychiatrist believed there to
be 4 temperaments, each linked to an monoamine system (neurotransmitter system):
Novelty-Seeking: related to dopamine system
Harm Avoidance: related to serotonin system
Reward Dependence: related to norepinephrine system
Persistence: there was no system identified linked to it.
Many biologists and neurologists wanted to believe that this association of traits and biological systems
was true, but evidence fails to support it. Yet, the psychiatrist revised the questionnaire and created
another inventory: The Temperament and Character Inventory. In addition to the genetic
temperaments, the psychiatrist added 3 characters linked to them: self-directedness, cooperative, and
The most widely accepted measure of personality is the Neuroticism Extraversion Openness – Personal
Inventory – Revised (NEO-PI-R). It measures the Five Factor Model, which looks at: CANOE
Agreeableness Lecture 9 – November 12 th
Openness to Experience
This inventory was not based off of biology, but on the lexical hypothesis. The lexical hypothesis is that
in order to understand people, we have to look at the language they use to describe each other (i.e.
dictionaries). No matter in which language the lexical hypothesis was applied, factor analysis always
brought up the same 5 factors (CANOE), except in Hungarian (for some reason). It`s now believed that
we can derive anyone’s personality from this test. For each of the CANOE traits, there are 6 facets that
This test is normative-based, which means that it was derived from the general population, and not
from psychiatric patients. This means that its predictions can only be applied to the general population,
and there is current debate on whether or not this test can be used on patients with psychopatholog