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Lecture 9

Lecture 9 (Nov. 12).docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Jessica Dere

Lecture 9 – November 12 th Personality Testing From Last class: Free Recall: list all words from the list that you remember. Cued Recall: “Tell me the words that were furniture” Recognition: “Did I say ‘desk’?” MoCA is good for identifying people with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). This group of patients is often missed by larger tests like the MMSE, since this test has better sensitivity (correct identification of true positives) and specificity (correct identification of true negatives; only looks at those affected). MoCA has 87% specificity whereas the MMSE is 100% specificity. This means that MMSE will never make it seem as though someone has a cognitive impairment when they really don’t have one. Yet, MMSE has a poorer sensitivity than MoCA (MoCA has 90-100% sensitivity), meaning that MoCA is better at letting you know that the person tested has MCI or not. Dr. Bagby’s Guest Lecture about Personality: Eysenck argued that there are no set of personality traits that are real, unless they have a biological basis. So, he focused on these traits:  Neuroticism: Negative affect; dimensional scale, in which one can obtain either a high or low score.  Extraversion: How outgoing someone is; also dimensional, meaning that if you score high, you are an extrovert, and if you score low, you’re an introvert  Psychoticism: actually measures impulsivity (it was added later on). The Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ): developed by a psychiatrist with the same reason as Eysenck: to discover the set of traits that are based on our biology. The psychiatrist believed there to be 4 temperaments, each linked to an monoamine system (neurotransmitter system):  Novelty-Seeking: related to dopamine system  Harm Avoidance: related to serotonin system  Reward Dependence: related to norepinephrine system  Persistence: there was no system identified linked to it. Many biologists and neurologists wanted to believe that this association of traits and biological systems was true, but evidence fails to support it. Yet, the psychiatrist revised the questionnaire and created another inventory: The Temperament and Character Inventory. In addition to the genetic temperaments, the psychiatrist added 3 characters linked to them: self-directedness, cooperative, and self-transcendence. The most widely accepted measure of personality is the Neuroticism Extraversion Openness – Personal Inventory – Revised (NEO-PI-R). It measures the Five Factor Model, which looks at: CANOE  Conscientiousness  Agreeableness Lecture 9 – November 12 th  Neuroticism  Openness to Experience  Extraversion This inventory was not based off of biology, but on the lexical hypothesis. The lexical hypothesis is that in order to understand people, we have to look at the language they use to describe each other (i.e. dictionaries). No matter in which language the lexical hypothesis was applied, factor analysis always brought up the same 5 factors (CANOE), except in Hungarian (for some reason). It`s now believed that we can derive anyone’s personality from this test. For each of the CANOE traits, there are 6 facets that are lower-ordered. This test is normative-based, which means that it was derived from the general population, and not from psychiatric patients. This means that its predictions can only be applied to the general population, and there is current debate on whether or not this test can be used on patients with psychopatholog
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