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Lecture 10

PSYC37- Lecture 10.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Anthony Ruocco

March 27, 2012 Forensic Applications of Assessment  Forensic psychologist as expert witness  Some specialize in court, and some more likely to work in a forensic setting such as a prison  Dr. Stephen Reich, Ph.D., J.D.; do not use jargon; somewhat about showmanship; normal human beings learn love through their parents, when one does not learn this, they seek love in other ways; 99.99% of those men buying sex from prostitutes because they have no other outlet;  Federal Rules of Evidence is one way to determine whether an expert who comes into court to testify can be considered an expert in court- must have extensive training, education, experience in specific area to be considered competent in that area; expert must provide information that goes beyond what the jurors and judge can come up with on their own; expert must contribute in clarifying issue not complicating it, and must not prejudice the jury (what the ethics code says, but is it what really happens in court?); expert testimony should make sense, and based in real theoretical reason;  Frye v. United States (1923)- experts should be using tests that use the scientific method; using a polygraph is not an accepted method (false positives); court concluded that this test had not gained acceptance and refused to allow the testimony of the expert witness; evidence presented in court needs to be based on tests with high reliability and validity; WAIS IV may not be as psychometrically strong as the WAIS III; conflict between law (most accepted) and the APA standards for psychological testing (up-to-date testing)  Accepting something just because it is generally accepted does not make it correct or scientifically supported (well validated); there can be individual variability in court settings because different people can accept different tests;  Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals (1993)- factors used to establish validity of a test: 1. Empirical testing- the theory or technique must be falsifiable, refutable, and testable (difficult to do for certain types of tests, but it is possible for perhaps intelligence tests); 2. Subjected to peer review and publication (allow others to determine the validity/reliability of a test, and publish results); 3. Known or potential error rate (what are the chances or what is the
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